Losartan Pot 50 MG Oral Tablet
Generic Name: LOSARTAN POTASSIUM
Brand Name: Losartan Potassium
- Substance Name(s):
- LOSARTAN POTASSIUM
Fetal Toxicity Pregnancy Category D Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue losartan potassium as soon as possible. These adverse outcomes are usually associated with the use of these drugs in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents. Appropriate management of maternal hypertension during pregnancy is important to optimize outcomes for both mother and fetus. In the unusual case that there is no appropriate alternative to therapy with drugs affecting the renin angiotensin system for a particular patient, apprise the mother of the potential risk to the fetus. Perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intra-amniotic environment. If oligohydramnios is observed, discontinue losartan potassium, unless it is considered life-saving for the mother. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of pregnancy. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe infants with histories of in utero exposure to losartan potassium for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia (see PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use ). Losartan potassium has been shown to produce adverse effects in rat fetuses and neonates, including decreased body weight, delayed physical and behavioral development, mortality and renal toxicity. With the exception of neonatal weight gain (which was affected at doses as low as 10 mg/kg/day), doses associated with these effects exceeded 25 mg/kg/day (approximately three times the maximum recommended human dose of 100 mg on a mg/m2 basis). These findings are attributed to drug exposure in late gestation and during lactation. Significant levels of losartan and its active metabolite were shown to be present in rat fetal plasma during late gestation and in rat milk. Hypotension — Volume-Depleted Patients: In patients who are intravascularly volume-depleted (e.g., those treated with diuretics), symptomatic hypotension may occur after initiation of therapy with losartan potassium tablets. These conditions should be corrected prior to administration of losartan potassium tablets, or a lower starting dose should be used (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).
Significant lethality was observed in mice and rats after oral administration of 1000 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg, respectively, about 44 and 170 times the maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m2 basis. Limited data are available in regard to overdosage in humans. The most likely manifestation of overdosage would be hypotension and tachycardia; bradycardia could occur from parasympathetic (vagal) stimulation. If symptomatic hypotension should occur, supportive treatment should be instituted. Neither losartan nor its active metabolite can be removed by hemodialysis.
Losartan potassium is an angiotensin II receptor (type AT1) antagonist. Losartan potassium, a non-peptide molecule, is chemically described as 2-butyl-4-chloro-1-[p-(o-1H-tetrazol-5-ylphenyl)benzyl]imidazole-5-methanol monopotassium salt. Its molecular formula is C22H22ClKN6O, and its structural formula is: Losartan potassium, USP is white to off-white powder with a molecular weight of 461.01. It is freely soluble in water; soluble in isopropyl alcohol; slightly soluble in acetonitrile. Oxidation of the 5-hydroxymethyl group on the imidazole ring results in the active metabolite of losartan. Each losartan potassium tablet, USP intended for oral administration contains 25 mg or 50 mg or 100 mg of losartan potassium. In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silica anhydrous, hydroxypropyl cellulose (low substituted), hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, maize starch (corn starch), microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, sodium starch glycolate, talc and titanium dioxide. Losartan potassium tablets, USP 25 mg, 50 mg and 100 mg contain potassium in the following amounts: 2.12 mg (0.054 mEq), 4.24 mg (0.108 mEq) and 8.48 mg (0.216 mEq), respectively. losartan potassium structural formula
Losartan Potassium Tablets USP, 25 mg are white to off-white, capsule-shaped, film-coated tablets debossed with the logo of “Z” on one side and “2”on other side and are supplied as follows: Overbagged with 10 tablets per bag, NDC 55154-4783-0 Losartan Potassium Tablets USP, 50 mg are white to off-white, capsule-shaped, film-coated tablets debossed with the logo of “Z16” on one side and lip type breakline on other side and are supplied as follows: Overbagged with 10 tablets per bag, NDC 55154-2089-0 Losartan Potassium Tablets USP, 100 mg are white to off-white, capsule-shaped, film-coated tablets debossed with the logo of “Z18” on one side and plain on other side and are supplied as follows: Overbagged with 10 tablets per bag, NDC 55154-6643-0 Storage: Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from light. The trademarks depicted herein are owned by their respective companies Packaged and Distributed by: American Health Packaging Columbus, OH 43217 Repackaged By: Cardinal Health Zanesville, OH 43701 8234601/1214
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Hypertension: Losartan potassium tablets, USP are indicated for the treatment of hypertension. It may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents, including diuretics. Hypertensive Patients with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: Losartan potassium tablets, USP are indicated to reduce the risk of stroke in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy, but there is evidence that this benefit does not apply to Black patients (see PRECAUTIONS, Race and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacodynamics and Clinical Effects, Reduction in the Risk of Stroke, Race ). Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Losartan potassium tablets, USP are indicated for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy with an elevated serum creatinine and proteinuria (urinary albumin to creatinine ratio ≥ 300 mg/g) in patients with type 2 diabetes and a history of hypertension. In this population, losartan potassium reduces the rate of progression of nephropathy as measured by the occurrence of doubling of serum creatinine or end stage renal disease (need for dialysis or renal transplantation) (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacodynamics and Clinical Effects ).
WARNING: FETAL TOXICITY •When pregnancy is detected, discontinue losartan potassium as soon as possible. •Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. See WARNINGS, Fetal Toxicity.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Adult Hypertensive Patients: Losartan potassium tablets may be administered with other antihypertensive agents, and with or without food. Dosing must be individualized. The usual starting dose of losartan potassium tablets is 50 mg once daily, with 25 mg used in patients with possible depletion of intravascular volume (e.g., patients treated with diuretics) (see WARNINGS, Hypotension — Volume-Depleted Patients ) and patients with a history of hepatic impairment (see PRECAUTIONS, General ). Losartan potassium tablets can be administered once or twice daily with total daily doses ranging from 25 mg to 100 mg. If the antihypertensive effect measured at trough using once-a-day dosing is inadequate, a twice-a-day regimen at the same total daily dose or an increase in dose may give a more satisfactory response. The effect of losartan is substantially present within one week but in some studies the maximal effect occurred in 3 to 6 weeks (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacodynamics and Clinical Effects, Hypertension ). If blood pressure is not controlled by losartan potassium tablets alone, a low dose of a diuretic may be added. Hydrochlorothiazide has been shown to have an additive effect (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacodynamics and Clinical Effects, Hypertension ). No initial dosage adjustment is necessary for elderly patients or for patients with renal impairment, including patients on dialysis. Pediatric Hypertensive Patients greater than or equal to 6 years of age: The usual recommended starting dose is 0.7 mg/kg once daily (up to 50 mg total) administered as a tablet or a suspension (see Preparation of Suspension ). Dosage should be adjusted according to blood pressure response. Doses above 1.4 mg/kg (or in excess of 100 mg) daily have not been studied in pediatric patients (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics, Special Populations and Pharmacodynamics and Clinical Effects and WARNINGS, Hypotension — Volume-Depleted Patients ). Losartan potassium tablets are not recommended in pediatric patients <6 years of age or in pediatric patients with glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics, Special Populations , Pharmacodynamics and Clinical Effects , and PRECAUTIONS ). Preparation of Suspension (for 200 mL of a 2.5 mg/mL suspension): Add 10 mL of Purified Water USP to an 8 ounce (240 mL) amber polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle containing ten 50 mg losartan potassium tablets. Immediately shake for at least 2 minutes. Let the concentrate stand for 1 hour and then shake for 1 minute to disperse the tablet contents. Separately prepare a 50/50 volumetric mixture of Ora-Plus™ and Ora-Sweet SF™. Add 190 mL of the 50/50 Ora-Plus™ /Ora-Sweet SF™ mixture to the tablet and water slurry in the PET bottle and shake for 1 minute to disperse the ingredients. The suspension should be refrigerated at 2 to 8°C (36 to 46°F) and can be stored for up to 4 weeks. Shake the suspension prior to each use and return promptly to the refrigerator. Hypertensive Patients with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: The usual starting dose is 50 mg of losartan potassium tablets once daily. Hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg daily should be added and/or the dose of losartan potassium tablets should be increased to 100 mg once daily followed by an increase in hydrochlorothiazide to 25 mg once daily based on blood pressure response (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacodynamics and Clinical Effects, Reduction in the Risk of Stroke ). Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients The usual starting dose is 50 mg once daily. The dose should be increased to 100 mg once daily based on blood pressure response (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacodynamics and Clinical Effects, Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients ). Losartan potassium may be administered with insulin and other commonly used hypoglycemic agents (e.g., sulfonylureas, glitazones and glucosidase inhibitors).