Lisinopril 10 MG Oral Tablet
7 •Diuretics: Excessive drop in blood pressure (7.1) •NSAIDS: Increased risk of renal impairment and loss of antihypertensive efficacy (7.3) •Dual inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system: Increased risk of renal impairment, hypotension and hyperkalemia (7.4) •Lithium: Symptoms of lithium toxicity (7.5) •Gold: Nitritoid reactions have been reported (7.6) 7.1 Diuretics Initiation of lisinopril in patients on diuretics may result in excessive reduction of blood pressure. The possibility of hypotensive effects with lisinopril can be minimized by either decreasing or discontinuing the diuretic or increasing the salt intake prior to initiation of treatment with lisinopril. If this is not possible, reduce the starting dose of lisinopril [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION (2.2) and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.4) ]. Lisinopril attenuates potassium loss caused by thiazide-type diuretics. Potassium-sparing diuretics (spironolactone, amiloride, triamterene, and others) can increase the risk of hyperkalemia. Therefore, if concomitant use of such agents is indicated, monitor the patient’s serum potassium frequently. 7.2 Antidiabetics Concomitant administration of lisinopril and antidiabetic medicines (insulins, oral hypoglycemic agents) may cause an increased blood-glucose-lowering effect with risk of hypoglycemia. 7.3 Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents Including Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors (COX-2 Inhibitors) In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, coadministration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors, with ACE inhibitors, including lisinopril, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving lisinopril and NSAID therapy. The antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors, including lisinopril, may be attenuated by NSAIDs. 7.4 Dual Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) Dual blockade of the RAS with angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors, or aliskiren is associated with increased risks of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and changes in renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to monotherapy. The VA NEPHRON trial enrolled 1,448 patients with type 2 diabetes, elevated urinary-albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR 30 to 89.9 mL/min), randomized them to lisinopril or placebo on a background of losartan therapy and followed them for a median of 2.2 years. Patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril did not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy for the combined endpoint of decline in GFR, end state renal disease, or death, but experienced an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute kidney injury compared with the monotherapy group. In general, avoid combined use of RAS inhibitors. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function and electrolytes in patients on lisinopril and other agents that affect the RAS. Do not co-administer aliskiren with lisinopril in patients with diabetes. Avoid use of aliskiren with lisinopril in patients with renal impairment (GFR less than 60 mL/min). 7.5 Lithium Lithium toxicity has been reported in patients receiving lithium concomitantly with drugs, which cause elimination of sodium, including ACE inhibitors. Lithium toxicity was usually reversible upon discontinuation of lithium and the ACE inhibitor. Monitor serum lithium levels during concurrent use. 7.6 Gold Nitritoid reactions (symptoms include facial flushing, nausea, vomiting and hypotension) have been reported rarely in patients on therapy with injectable gold (sodium aurothiomalate) and concomitant ACE inhibitor therapy including lisinopril. 7.7 mTOR Inhibitors Patients taking concomitant mTOR inhibitor (e.g., temsirolimus, sirolimus, everolimus) therapy may be at increased risk for angioedema [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.2)].
10 Following a single oral dose of 20 g/kg no lethality occurred in rats, and death occurred in one of 20 mice receiving the same dose. The most likely manifestation of overdosage would be hypotension, for which the usual treatment would be intravenous infusion of normal saline solution. Lisinopril can be removed by hemodialysis [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY (12.3) ].
11 Lisinopril is an oral long-acting angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. Lisinopril, a synthetic peptide derivative, is chemically described as (S)-1-[N2-(1-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl)-L-lysyl]-L-proline dihydrate. Its empirical formula is C21H31N3O5 • 2H2O and its structural formula is: Lisinopril USP is a white to off-white, crystalline powder, with a molecular weight of 441.53. It is soluble in water and sparingly soluble in methanol and practically insoluble in ethanol. Lisinopril tablets USP, for oral administration, is supplied as 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg and 40 mg tablets. Inactive Ingredients: 2.5 mg tablets – dibasic calcium phosphate, magnesium stearate, mannitol, corn starch. 5 mg, 10 mg and 30 mg tablets – dibasic calcium phosphate, magnesium stearate, mannitol, red iron oxide, corn starch. 20 mg tablets – dibasic calcium phosphate, magnesium stearate, mannitol, red iron oxide, corn starch, yellow iron oxide. 40 mg tablets – dibasic calcium phosphate, magnesium stearate, mannitol, corn starch, yellow iron oxide. Chemical Structure
14 14.1 Hypertension Two dose-response studies utilizing a once-daily regimen were conducted in 438 mild to moderate hypertensive patients not on a diuretic. Blood pressure was measured 24 hours after dosing. An antihypertensive effect of lisinopril was seen with 5 mg of lisinopril in some patients. However, in both studies blood pressure reduction occurred sooner and was greater in patients treated with 10 mg, 20 mg or 80 mg of lisinopril than patients treated with 5 mg of lisinopril. In controlled clinical studies of patients with mild to moderate hypertension, patients were treated with lisinopril 20 mg to 80 mg daily, hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg to 50 mg daily or atenolol 50 mg to 200 mg daily; and in other studies of patients with moderate to severe hypertension, patients were treated with lisinopril 20 mg to 80 mg daily or metoprolol 100 mg to 200 mg daily. Lisinopril demonstrated superior reductions of systolic and diastolic compared to hydrochlorothiazide in a population that was 75% Caucasian. Lisinopril was approximately equivalent to atenolol and metoprolol in reducing diastolic blood pressure, and had somewhat greater effects on systolic blood pressure. Lisinopril had similar blood pressure reductions and adverse effects in younger and older (greater than 65 years) patients. It was less effective in reducing blood pressure in Blacks than in Caucasians. In hemodynamic studies of lisinopril in patients with essential hypertension, blood pressure reduction was accompanied by a reduction in peripheral arterial resistance with little or no change in cardiac output and in heart rate. In a study in nine hypertensive patients, following administration of lisinopril, there was an increase in mean renal blood flow that was not significant. Data from several small studies are inconsistent with respect to the effect of lisinopril on glomerular filtration rate in hypertensive patients with normal renal function, but suggest that changes, if any, are not large. In patients with renovascular hypertension lisinopril has been shown to be well tolerated and effective in reducing blood pressure [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.3) ]. Pediatric Patients In a clinical study involving 115 hypertensive pediatric patients 6 to 16 years of age, patients who weighed less than 50 kg received either 0.625 mg, 2.5 mg or 20 mg of lisinopril once daily and patients who weighed greater than or equal to 50 kg received either 1.25 mg, 5 mg, or 40 mg of lisinopril once daily. At the end of 2 weeks, lisinopril lowered trough blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner with antihypertensive efficacy demonstrated at doses greater than 1.25 mg (0.02 mg per kg). This effect was confirmed in a randomized withdrawal phase, where the diastolic pressure rose by about 9 mmHg more in patients randomized to placebo than compared to patients who remained on the middle and high doses of lisinopril. The dose-dependent antihypertensive effect of lisinopril was consistent across several demographic subgroups: age, Tanner stage, gender, and race. In this study, lisinopril was generally well-tolerated. In the above pediatric studies, lisinopril was given either as tablets or in a suspension for those children and infants who were unable to swallow tablets or who required a lower dose than is available in tablet form [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION (2.1) ]. 14.2 Heart Failure In two placebo controlled, 12-week clinical studies compared the addition of lisinopril up to 20 mg daily to digitalis and diuretics alone. The combination of lisinopril, digitalis and diuretics reduced the following signs and symptoms of heart failure: edema, rales, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea and jugular venous distention. In one of the studies, the combination of lisinopril, digitalis and diuretics reduced orthopnea, presence of third heart sound and the number of patients classified as NYHA Class III and IV; and improved exercise tolerance. A large (over 3,000 patients) survival study, the ATLAS Trial, comparing 2.5 mg and 35 mg of lisinopril in patients with systolic heart failure, showed that the higher dose of lisinopril had outcomes at least as favorable as the lower dose. During baseline-controlled clinical trials, in patients with systolic heart failure receiving digitalis and diuretics, single doses of lisinopril resulted in decreases in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, systemic vascular resistance and blood pressure accompanied by an increase in cardiac output and no change in heart rate. 14.3 Acute Myocardial Infarction The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvienza nell’Infarto Miocardico (GISSI-3) study was a multicenter, controlled, randomized, unblinded clinical trial conducted in 19,394 patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) admitted to a coronary care unit. It was designed to examine the effects of short-term (6 week) treatment with lisinopril, nitrates, their combination, or no therapy on short-term (6 week) mortality and on long-term death and markedly impaired cardiac function. Hemodynamically-stable patients presenting within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms were randomized, in a 2 x 2 factorial design, to six weeks of either 1) lisinopril alone (n=4,841), 2) nitrates alone (n=4,869), 3) lisinopril plus nitrates (n=4,841), or 4) open control (n=4,843). All patients received routine therapies, including thrombolytics (72%), aspirin (84%), and a beta blocker (31%), as appropriate, normally utilized in acute myocardial infarction (MI) patients. The protocol excluded patients with hypotension (systolic blood pressure less than or equal to 100 mmHg), severe heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and renal dysfunction (serum creatinine greater than 2 mg per dL and/or proteinuria greater than 500 mg per 24 h). Patients randomized to lisinopril received 5 mg within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms, 5 mg after 24 hours, and then 10 mg daily thereafter. Patients with systolic blood pressure less than 120 mmHg at baseline received 2.5 mg of lisinopril. If hypotension occurred, the lisinopril dose was reduced or if severe hypotension occurred lisinopril was stopped [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION (2.3) ]. The primary outcomes of the trial were the overall mortality at 6 weeks and a combined end point at 6 months after the myocardial infarction, consisting of the number of patients who died, had late (day 4) clinical congestive heart failure, or had extensive left ventricular damage defined as ejection fraction less than or equal to 35% or an akinetic-dyskinetic [A-D] score greater than or equal to 45%. Patients receiving lisinopril (n=9,646), alone or with nitrates, had an 11% lower risk of death (p = 0.04) compared to patients who did not receive lisinopril (n=9,672) (6.4% vs. 7.2%, respectively) at six weeks. Although patients randomized to receive lisinopril for up to six weeks also fared numerically better on the combined end point at 6 months, the open nature of the assessment of heart failure, substantial loss to follow-up echocardiography, and substantial excess use of lisinopril between 6 weeks and 6 months in the group randomized to 6 weeks of lisinopril, preclude any conclusion about this end point. Patients with acute myocardial infarction, treated with lisinopril, had a higher (9.0% versus 3.7%) incidence of persistent hypotension (systolic blood pressure less than 90 mmHg for more than 1 hour) and renal dysfunction (2.4% versus 1.1%) in-hospital and at six weeks (increasing creatinine concentration to over 3 mg per dL or a doubling or more of the baseline serum creatinine concentration) [see ADVERSE REACTIONS (6.1) ].
16 /STORAGE AND HANDLING Lisinopril Tablets USP, for oral administration, are available as 10 mg Pink, round, biconvex, uncoated tablets debossed “E101” on one side and plain on the other side and supplied as: Overbagged with 10 tablets per bag, NDC 55154-7641-0 Storage Store at 20º to 25ºC (68º to 77ºF) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from moisture, freezing and excessive heat. Dispense in a tight container.
8.5 Geriatric Use No dosage adjustment with lisinopril is necessary in elderly patients. In a clinical study of lisinopril in patients with myocardial infarctions (GISSI-3 Trial) 4,413 (47%) were 65 and over, while 1,656 (18%) were 75 and over. In this study, 4.8 % of patients aged 75 years and older discontinued lisinopril treatment because of renal dysfunction vs. 1.3% of patients younger than 75 years. No other differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
3 2.5 mg are white, round, biconvex, uncoated tablets debossed “E25” on one side and plain on the other side. 5 mg are pink, oval, biconvex, uncoated tablets debossed “E54” on one side and bisected on the other side. 10 mg are pink, round, biconvex, uncoated tablets debossed “E101” on one side and plain on the other side. 20 mg are peach, round, biconvex, uncoated tablets debossed “E102” on one side and plain on the other side. 30 mg are red, round, biconvex, uncoated tablets debossed “E103” on one side and plain on the other side. 40 mg are yellow, round, biconvex, uncoated tablets debossed “E104” on one side and plain on the other side. Tablets: 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, 40 mg (3)
MECHANISM OF ACTION
12.1 Mechanism of Action Lisinopril inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in human subjects and animals. ACE is a peptidyl dipeptidase that catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin I to the vasoconstrictor substance, angiotensin II. Angiotensin II also stimulates aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex. The beneficial effects of lisinopril in hypertension and heart failure appear to result primarily from suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Inhibition of ACE results in decreased plasma angiotensin II which leads to decreased vasopressor activity and to decreased aldosterone secretion. The latter decrease may result in a small increase of serum potassium. In hypertensive patients with normal renal function treated with lisinopril alone for up to 24 weeks, the mean increase in serum potassium was approximately 0.1 mEq/L; however, approximately 15% of patients had increases greater than 0.5 mEq/L and approximately 6% had a decrease greater than 0.5 mEq/L. In the same study, patients treated with lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide for up to 24 weeks had a mean decrease in serum potassium of 0.1 mEq/L; approximately 4% of patients had increases greater than 0.5 mEq/L and approximately 12% had a decrease greater than 0.5 mEq/L [see CLINICAL STUDIES (14.1) ]. Removal of angiotensin II negative feedback on renin secretion leads to increased plasma renin activity. ACE is identical to kininase, an enzyme that degrades bradykinin. Whether increased levels of bradykinin, a potent vasodepressor peptide, play a role in the therapeutic effects of lisinopril remains to be elucidated. While the mechanism through which lisinopril lowers blood pressure is believed to be primarily suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, lisinopril is antihypertensive even in patients with low-renin hypertension. Although lisinopril was antihypertensive in all races studied, Black hypertensive patients (usually a low-renin hypertensive population) had a smaller average response to monotherapy than non Black patients. Concomitant administration of lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide further reduced blood pressure in Black and non-Black patients and any racial differences in blood pressure response were no longer evident.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
1 Lisinopril tablets are an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor indicated for: •Treatment of hypertension in adults and pediatric patients 6 years of age and older (1.1) •Adjunct therapy for heart failure (1.2) •Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction (1.3) 1.1 Hypertension Lisinopril tablets are indicated for the treatment of hypertension in adult patients and pediatric patients 6 years of age and older to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure lowers the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes. Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than 1 drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC). Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly. Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal. Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy. Lisinopril tablets may be administered alone or with other antihypertensive agents [see CLINICAL STUDIES (14.1) ]. 1.2 Heart Failure Lisinopril tablets are indicated to reduce signs and symptoms of systolic heart failure [see CLINICAL STUDIES (14.2) ]. 1.3 Reduction of Mortality in Acute Myocardial Infarction Lisinopril tablets are indicated for the reduction of mortality in treatment of hemodynamically stable patients within 24 hours of acute myocardial infarction. Patients should receive, as appropriate, the standard recommended treatments such as thrombolytics, aspirin and beta-blockers [see CLINICAL STUDIES (14.3) ].
8.4 Pediatric Use Antihypertensive effects and safety of lisinopril have been established in pediatric patients aged 6 to 16 years [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION (2.1) and CLINICAL STUDIES (14.1) ]. No relevant differences between the adverse reaction profile for pediatric patients and adult patients were identified. Safety and effectiveness of lisinopril have not been established in pediatric patients under the age 6 or in pediatric patients with glomerular filtration rate less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION (2.1) , CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY (12.3) and CLINICAL STUDIES (14.1) ]. Neonates with a history of in utero exposure to Lisinopril If oliguria or hypotension occurs, direct attention toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function.
8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category D Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue lisinopril as soon as possible. These adverse outcomes are usually associated with use of these drugs in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents. Appropriate management of maternal hypertension during pregnancy is important to optimize outcomes for both mother and fetus. In the unusual case that there is no appropriate alternative to therapy with drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system for a particular patient, apprise the mother of the potential risk to the fetus. Perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intra-amniotic environment. If oligohydramnios is observed, discontinue lisinopril, unless it is considered lifesaving for the mother. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of pregnancy. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe infants with histories of in utero exposure to lisinopril for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia [see USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS (8.4) ].
8.3 Nursing Mothers Milk of lactating rats contains radioactivity following administration of 14C lisinopril. It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from ACE inhibitors, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue lisinopril, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
WARNING: FETAL TOXICITY •When pregnancy is detected, discontinue lisinopril as soon as possible [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.1) ]. •Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.1) ] . WARNING: FETAL TOXICITY See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. •When pregnancy is detected, discontinue lisinopril as soon as possible. (5.1) •Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. (5.1)
WARNING AND CAUTIONS
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS •Angioedema: Discontinue lisinopril, provide appropriate therapy and monitor until resolved (5.2) •Renal impairment: Monitor renal function periodically (5.3) •Hypotension: Patients with other heart or renal diseases have increased risk, monitor blood pressure after initiation (5.4) •Hyperkalemia: Monitor serum potassium periodically (5.5) •Cholestatic jaundice and hepatic failure: Monitor for jaundice or signs of liver failure (5.6) 5.1 Fetal Toxicity Pregnancy Category D Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue lisinopril as soon as possible [see USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS (8.1) ]. 5.2 Angioedema and Anaphylactoid Reactions Patients taking concomitant mTOR inhibitor (e.g., temsirolimus, sirolimus, everolimus) therapy may be at increased risk for angioedema [see DRUG INTERACTIONS (7.7) ]. Angioedema Head and Neck Angioedema Angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis and/or larynx, including some fatal reactions, have occurred in patients treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, including lisinopril, at any time during treatment. Patients with involvement of the tongue, glottis or larynx are likely to experience airway obstruction, especially those with a history of airway surgery. Lisinopril should be promptly discontinued and appropriate therapy and monitoring should be provided until complete and sustained resolution of signs and symptoms of angioedema has occurred. Patients with a history of angioedema unrelated to ACE inhibitor therapy may be at increased risk of angioedema while receiving an ACE inhibitor [see CONTRAINDICATIONS (4) ]. ACE inhibitors have been associated with a higher rate of angioedema in black than in non-black patients. Intestinal Angioedema Intestinal angioedema has occurred in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. These patients presented with abdominal pain (with or without nausea or vomiting); in some cases there was no prior history of facial angioedema and C-1 esterase levels were normal. In some cases, the angioedema was diagnosed by procedures including abdominal CT scan or ultrasound, or at surgery, and symptoms resolved after stopping the ACE inhibitor. Anaphylactoid Reactions Anaphylactoid Reactions During Desensitization Two patients undergoing desensitizing treatment with hymenoptera venom while receiving ACE inhibitors sustained life- threatening anaphylactoid reactions. Anaphylactoid Reactions During Dialysis Sudden and potentially life threatening anaphylactoid reactions have occurred in some patients dialyzed with high-flux membranes and treated concomitantly with an ACE inhibitor. In such patients, dialysis must be stopped immediately, and aggressive therapy for anaphylactoid reactions must be initiated. Symptoms have not been relieved by antihistamines in these situations. In these patients, consideration should be given to using a different type of dialysis membrane or a different class of antihypertensive agent. Anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported in patients undergoing low-density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulfate absorption. 5.3 Impaired Renal Function Monitor renal function periodically in patients treated with lisinopril. Changes in renal function including acute renal failure can be caused by drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system. Patients whose renal function may depend in part on the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (e.g., patients with renal artery stenosis, chronic kidney disease, severe congestive heart failure, post-myocardial infarction or volume depletion) may be at particular risk of developing acute renal failure on lisinopril. Consider withholding or discontinuing therapy in patients who develop a clinically significant decrease in renal function on lisinopril [see ADVERSE REACTIONS (6.1), DRUG INTERACTIONS (7.4) ]. 5.4 Hypotension Lisinopril can cause symptomatic hypotension, sometimes complicated by oliguria, progressive azotemia, acute renal failure or death. Patients at risk of excessive hypotension include those with the following conditions or characteristics: heart failure with systolic blood pressure below 100 mmHg, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, hyponatremia, high dose diuretic therapy, renal dialysis, or severe volume and/or salt depletion of any etiology. In these patients, lisinopril should be started under very close medical supervision and such patients should be followed closely for the first two weeks of treatment and whenever the dose of lisinopril and/or diuretic is increased. Avoid use of lisinopril in patients who are hemodynamically unstable after acute MI. Symptomatic hypotension is also possible in patients with severe aortic stenosis or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Surgery/Anesthesia In patients undergoing major surgery or during anesthesia with agents that produce hypotension, lisinopril may block angiotensin II formation secondary to compensatory renin release. If hypotension occurs and is considered to be due to this mechanism, it can be corrected by volume expansion. 5.5 Hyperkalemia Serum potassium should be monitored periodically in patients receiving lisinopril. Drugs that inhibit the renin angiotensin system can cause hyperkalemia. Risk factors for the development of hyperkalemia include renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, and the concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements and/or potassium-containing salt substitutes [see DRUG INTERACTIONS (7.1) ]. 5.6 Hepatic Failure ACE inhibitors have been associated with a syndrome that starts with cholestatic jaundice or hepatitis and progresses to fulminant hepatic necrosis and sometimes death. The mechanism of this syndrome is not understood. Patients receiving ACE inhibitors who develop jaundice or marked elevations of hepatic enzymes should discontinue the ACE inhibitor and receive appropriate medical treatment.
INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS
17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION NOTE This information is intended to aid in the safe and effective use of this medication. It is not a disclosure of all possible adverse or intended effects. Pregnancy Tell female patients of childbearing age about the consequences of exposure to lisinopril during pregnancy. Discuss treatment options with women planning to become pregnant. Tell patients to report pregnancies to their physicians as soon as possible. Angioedema Angioedema, including laryngeal edema may occur at any time during treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, including lisinopril. Tell patients to report immediately any signs or symptoms suggesting angioedema (swelling of face, extremities, eyes, lips, tongue, difficulty in swallowing or breathing) and to take no more drug until they have consulted with the prescribing physician. Symptomatic Hypotension Tell patients to report light-headedness especially during the first few days of therapy. If actual syncope occurs, tell the patient to discontinue the drug until they have consulted with the prescribing physician. Tell patients that excessive perspiration and dehydration may lead to an excessive fall in blood pressure because of reduction in fluid volume. Other causes of volume depletion such as vomiting or diarrhea may also lead to a fall in blood pressure; advise patients accordingly. Hyperkalemia Tell patients not to use salt substitutes containing potassium without consulting their physician. Hypoglycemia Tell diabetic patients treated with oral antidiabetic agents or insulin starting an ACE inhibitor to monitor for hypoglycaemia closely, especially during the first month of combined use [see DRUG INTERACTIONS (7.2) ]. Leukopenia/Neutropenia Tell patients to report promptly any indication of infection (e.g., sore throat, fever), which may be a sign of leukopenia/neutropenia. Sandoz Inc. Princeton, NJ 08540 46158592 Distributed by: Major Pharmaceuticals 31778 Enterprise Drive Livonia, MI 48150 USA Repackaged By: Cardinal Health Zanesville, OH 43701 L52420110716 Rev. November 2015 MF0025REV11/15 IH1580 0316
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
2 •Hypertension: Initial adult dose is 10 mg once daily. Titrate up to 40 mg daily based on blood pressure response. Initiate patients on diuretics at 5 mg once daily (2.1) •Pediatric patients with glomerular filtration rate greater than 30 mL/min/1.73m2: Initial dose in patients 6 years of age and older is 0.07 mg per kg (up to 5 mg total) once daily (2.1) •Heart Failure: Initiate with 5 mg once daily. Increase dose as tolerated to 40 mg daily (2.2) •Acute Myocardial Infarction (MI): Give 5 mg within 24 hours of MI. Followed by 5 mg after 24 hours, then 10 mg once daily (2.3) •Renal Impairment: For patients with creatinine clearance greater than or equal to 10 mL/min and less than or equal to 30 mL/min, halve usual initial dose. For patients with creatinine clearance less than 10 mL/min or on hemodialysis, the recommended initial dose is 2.5 mg (2.4) 2.1 Hypertension Initial Therapy in Adults The recommended initial dose is 10 mg once a day. Dosage should be adjusted according to blood pressure response. The usual dosage range is 20 mg to 40 mg per day administered in a single daily dose. Doses up to 80 mg have been used but do not appear to give greater effect. Use with Diuretics in Adults If blood pressure is not controlled with lisinopril tablets alone, a low dose of a diuretic may be added (e.g., hydrochlorothiazide, 12.5 mg). After the addition of a diuretic, it may be possible to reduce the dose of lisinopril tablets. The recommended starting dose in adult patients with hypertension taking diuretics is 5 mg once per day. Pediatric Patients 6 years of age and older with hypertension For pediatric patients with glomerular filtration rate greater than 30 mL/min/1.73m2, the recommended starting dose is 0.07 mg per kg once daily (up to 5 mg total). Dosage should be adjusted according to blood pressure response up to a maximum of 0.61 mg per kg (up to 40 mg) once daily. Doses above 0.61 mg per kg (or in excess of 40 mg) have not been studied in pediatric patients [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY (12.3) ]. Lisinopril tablets are not recommended in pediatric patients less than 6 years or in pediatric patients with glomerular filtration rate less than 30 mL/min/1.73m2 [see USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS (8.4) and CLINICAL STUDIES (14.1) ]. 2.2 Heart Failure The recommended starting dose for lisinopril tablets, when used with diuretics and (usually) digitalis as adjunctive therapy for systolic heart failure, is 5 mg once daily. The recommended starting dose in these patients with hyponatremia (serum sodium less than 130 mEq/L) is 2.5 mg once daily. Increase as tolerated to a maximum of 40 mg once daily. Diuretic dose may need to be adjusted to help minimize hypovolemia, which may contribute to hypotension [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.4) , and DRUG INTERACTIONS (7.1) ]. The appearance of hypotension after the initial dose of lisinopril tablets does not preclude subsequent careful dose titration with the drug, following effective management of the hypotension. 2.3 Reduction of Mortality in Acute Myocardial Infarction In hemodynamically stable patients within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms of acute myocardial infarction, give lisinopril tablets 5 mg orally, followed by 5 mg after 24 hours, 10 mg after 48 hours and then 10 mg once daily. Dosing should continue for at least six weeks. Initiate therapy with 2.5 mg in patients with a low systolic blood pressure (less than or equal to 120 mmHg and greater than 100 mmHg) during the first 3 days after the infarct [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.4) ]. If hypotension occurs (systolic blood pressure less than or equal to 100 mmHg) a daily maintenance dose of 5 mg may be given with temporary reductions to 2.5 mg if needed. If prolonged hypotension occurs (systolic blood pressure less than 90 mmHg for more than 1 hour) lisinopril tablets should be withdrawn. 2.4 Dose in Patients with Renal Impairment No dose adjustment of lisinopril tablets is required in patients with creatinine clearance greater than 30 mL/min. In patients with creatinine clearance greater than or equal to 10 mL/min and less than or equal to 30 mL/min, reduce the initial dose of lisinopril tablets to half of the usual recommended dose i.e., hypertension, 5 mg; systolic heart failure, 2.5 mg and acute MI, 2.5 mg. Up titrate as tolerated to a maximum of 40 mg daily. For patients on hemodialysis or creatinine clearance less than 10 mL/min, the recommended initial dose is 2.5 mg once daily [see USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS (8.7) and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY (12.3) ].