Generic Name: DIAZEPAM
Brand Name: DIAZEPAM
- Substance Name(s):
SECTION Diazepam is not recommended in the treatment of psychotic patients and should not be employed instead of appropriate treatment. Since diazepam has a central nervous system depressant effect, patients should be advised against the simultaneous ingestion of alcohol and other CNS-depressant drugs during diazepam therapy. As with other agents that have anticonvulsant activity, when diazepam is used as an adjunct in treating convulsive disorders, the possibility of an increase in the frequency and/or severity of grand mal seizures may require an increase in the dosage of standard anticonvulsant medication. Abrupt withdrawal of diazepam in such cases may also be associated with a temporary increase in the frequency and/or severity of seizures. Pregnancy An increased risk of congenital malformations and other developmental abnormalities associated with the use of benzodiazepine drugs during pregnancy has been suggested. There may also be non-teratogenic risks associated with the use of benzodiazepines during pregnancy. There have been reports of neonatal flaccidity, respiratory and feeding difficulties, and hypothermia in children born to mothers who have been receiving benzodiazepines late in pregnancy. In addition, children born to mothers receiving benzodiazepines on a regular basis late in pregnancy may be at some risk of experiencing withdrawal symptoms during the postnatal period. Diazepam has been shown to be teratogenic in mice and hamsters when given orally at daily doses of 100 mg/kg or greater (approximately eight times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD=1 mg/kg/day] or greater on a mg/m2 basis). Cleft palate and encephalopathy are the most common and consistently reported malformations produced in these species by administration of high, maternally toxic doses of diazepam during organogenesis. Rodent studies have indicated that prenatal exposure to diazepam doses similar to those used clinically can produce long-term changes in cellular immune responses, brain neurochemistry, and behavior. In general, the use of diazepam in women of childbearing potential, and more specifically during known pregnancy, should be considered only when the clinical situation warrants the risk to the fetus. The possibility that a woman of childbearing potential may be pregnant at the time of institution of therapy should be considered. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Patients should also be advised that if they become pregnant during therapy or intend to become pregnant they should communicate with their physician about the desirability of discontinuing the drug. Labor and Delivery Special care must be taken when diazepam is used during labor and delivery, as high single doses may produce irregularities in the fetal heart rate and hypotonia, poor sucking, hypothermia, and moderate respiratory depression in the neonates. With newborn infants it must be remembered that the enzyme system involved in the breakdown of the drug is not yet fully developed (especially in premature infants). Nursing Mothers Diazepam passes into breast milk. Breastfeeding is therefore not recommended in patients receiving diazepam.
SECTION Overdose of benzodiazepines is usually manifested by central nervous system depression ranging from drowsiness to coma. In mild cases, symptoms include drowsiness, confusion, and lethargy. In more serious cases, symptoms may include ataxia, diminished reflexes, hypotonia, hypotension, respiratory depression, coma (rarely), and death (very rarely). Overdose of benzodiazepines in combination with other CNS depressants (including alcohol) may be fatal and should be closely monitored. Management of Overdosage Following overdose with oral benzodiazepines, general supportive measures should be employed including the monitoring of respiration, pulse, and blood pressure. Vomiting should be induced (within 1 hour) if the patient is conscious. Gastric lavage should be undertaken with the airway protected if the patient is unconscious. Intravenous fluids should be administered. If there is no advantage in emptying the stomach, activated charcoal should be given to reduce absorption. Special attention should be paid to respiratory and cardiac function in intensive care. General supportive measures should be employed, along with intravenous fluids, and an adequate airway maintained. Should hypotension develop, treatment may include intravenous fluid therapy, repositioning, judicious use of vasopressors appropriate to the clinical situation, if indicated, and other appropriate countermeasures. Dialysis is of limited value. As with the management of intentional overdosage with any drug, it should be considered that multiple agents may have been ingested. Flumazenil, a specific benzodiazepine-receptor antagonist, is indicated for the complete or partial reversal of the sedative effects of benzodiazepines and may be used in situations when an overdose with a benzodiazepine is known or suspected. Prior to the administration of flumazenil, necessary measures should be instituted to secure airway, ventilation and intravenous access. Flumazenil is intended as an adjunct to, not as a substitute for, proper management of benzodiazepine overdose. Patients treated with flumazenil should be monitored for resedation, respiratory depression and other residual benzodiazepine effects for an appropriate period after treatment. The prescriber should be aware of a risk of seizure in association with flumazenil treatment, particularly in long-term benzodiazepine users and in cyclic antidepressant overdose. Caution should be observed in the use of flumazenil in epileptic patients treated with benzodiazepines. The complete flumazenil package insert, including CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS, and PRECAUTIONS, should be consulted prior to use. Withdrawal symptoms of the barbiturate type have occurred after the discontinuation of benzodiazepines (see DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE
SECTION Diazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative. The chemical name of diazepam is 7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. It is a colorless to light yellow crystalline compound, insoluble in water. The empirical formula is C16H13ClN2O and the molecular weight is 284.75. The structural formula is as follows: Diazepam is available for oral administration as tablets containing 2 mg, 5 mg or 10 mg diazepam. In addition to the active ingredient diazepam, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: calcium stearate, colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, lactose monohydrate and microcrystalline cellulose with the following dyes: 5-mg tablets contain D&C Yellow #10 aluminum lake; 10-mg tablets contain FD&C Blue #1 aluminum lake. Diazepam 2-mg tablets contain no dye. image description
SECTION For oral administration, Diazepam Tablets, USP are supplied as: 2 mg- white, flat-faced beveled edge scored tablets, debossed “2682” on one side and “V” on the reverse side, supplied in bottles of 10, 30, 60, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000. 5 mg- yellow, flat-faced beveled edge scored tablets, debossed “2683” on one side and “V” on the reverse side, supplied in bottles of 10, 30, 60, 90, 100, 120, 500, 1000 and 5000. 10 mg- blue, flat-faced beveled edge scored tablets, debossed “2684” on one side and “V” on the reverse side, supplied in bottles of 10, 30, 60, 90, 100, 120, 500, 1000 and 5000.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
INDICATIONS & USAGE SECTION Diazepam tablets are indicated for the management of anxiety disorders or for the short-term relief of the symptoms of anxiety. Anxiety or tension associated with the stress of everyday life usually does not require treatment with an anxiolytic. In acute alcohol withdrawal, diazepam may be useful in the symptomatic relief of acute agitation, tremor, impending or acute delirium tremens and hallucinosis. Diazepam is a useful adjunct for the relief of skeletal muscle spasm due to reflex spasm to local pathology (such as inflammation of the muscles or joints, or secondary to trauma); spasticity caused by upper motor neuron disorders (such as cerebral palsy and paraplegia); athetosis; and stiff-man syndrome. Oral diazepam may be used adjunctively in convulsive disorders, although it has not proved useful as the sole therapy. The effectiveness of diazepam in long-term use, that is, more than 4 months, has not been assessed by systematic clinical studies. The physician should periodically reassess the usefulness of the drug for the individual patient.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION SECTION Dosage should be individualized for maximum beneficial effect. While the usual daily dosages given below will meet the needs of most patients, there will be some who may require higher doses. In such cases, dosage should be increased cautiously to avoid adverse effects. ADULTS: USUAL DAILY DOSE: Management of Anxiety Disorders and Relief of Symptoms of Anxiety. Depending upon severity of symptoms – 2 mg to 10 mg, 2 to 4 times daily Symptomatic Relief in Acute Alcohol Withdrawal. 10 mg, 3 or 4 times during the first 24 hours, reducing to 5 mg, 3 or 4 times daily as needed Adjunctively for Relief of Skeletal Muscle Spasm. 2 mg to 10 mg, 3 or 4 times daily Adjunctively in Convulsive Disorders. 2 mg to 10 mg, 2 to 4 times daily Geriatric Patients, or in the presence of debilitating disease. 2 mg to 2½ mg, 1 or 2 times daily initially; increase gradually as needed and tolerated PEDIATRIC PATIENTS: Because of varied responses to CNS-acting drugs, initiate therapy with lowest dose and increase as required. Not for use in pediatric patients under 6 months. 1 mg to 2½ mg, 3 or 4 times daily initially; increase gradually as needed and tolerated