Generic Name: DEXTROAMPHETAMINE SULFATE
Brand Name: DEXTROAMPHETAMINE SULFATE
- Substance Name(s):
- DEXTROAMPHETAMINE SULFATE
Drug Interactions Acidifying Agents Gastrointestinal acidifying agents (guanethidine, reserpine, glutamic acid HCl, ascorbic acid, fruit juices, etc.) lower absorption of amphetamines.
Urinary acidifying agents (ammonium chloride, sodium acid phosphate, etc.) increase the concentration of the ionized species of the amphetamine molecule, thereby increasing urinary excretion.
Both groups of agents lower blood levels and efficacy of amphetamines.
Adrenergic Blockers Adrenergic blockers are inhibited by amphetamines.
Alkalinizing Agent Gastrointestinal alkalinizing agents (sodium bicarbonate, etc.) increase absorption of amphetamines.
Urinary alkalinizing agents (acetazolamide, some thiazides) increase the concentration of the non-ionized species of the amphetamine molecule, thereby decreasing urinary excretion.
Both groups of agents increase blood levels and therefore potentiate the actions of amphetamines.
Antidepressants, Tricyclic Amphetamines may enhance the activity of tricyclic or sympathomimetic agents; d -amphetamine with desipramine or protriptyline and possibly other tricyclics cause striking and sustained increases in the concentration of d -amphetamine in the brain; cardiovascular effects can be potentiated.
CYP2D6 Inhibitors The concomitant use of dextroamphetamine sulfate tablets and CYP2D6 inhibitors may increase the exposure of dextroamphetamine sulfate tablets compared to the use of the drug alone and increase the risk of serotonin syndrome.
Initiate with lower doses and monitor patients for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome particularly during dextroamphetamine sulfate tablets initiation and after a dosage increase.
If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue dextroamphetamine sulfate tablets and the CYP2D6 inhibitor [see WARNINGS , OVERDOSAGE ].
Examples of CYP2D6 Inhibitors include paroxetine and fluoxetine (also serotonergic drugs), quinidine, ritonavir.
Serotonergic Drugs The concomitant use of dextroamphetamine sulfate tablets and serotonergic drugs increases the risk of serotonin syndrome.
Initiate with lower doses and monitor patients for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome, particularly during dextroamphetamine sulfate tablets initiation or dosage increase.
If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue dextroamphetamine sulfate tablets and the concomitant serotonergic drug(s) [see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS ].
Examples of serotonergic drugs include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI), triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, St.
MAO Inhibitors MAOI antidepressants, as well as a metabolite of furazolidone, slow amphetamine metabolism.
This slowing potentiates amphetamines, increasing their effect on the release of norepinephrine and other monoamines from adrenergic nerve endings; this can cause headaches and other signs of hypertensive crisis.
A variety of neurological toxic effects and malignant hyperpyrexia can occur, sometimes with fatal results.
Antihistamines Amphetamines may counteract the sedative effect of antihistamines.
Antihypertensives Amphetamines may antagonize the hypotensive effects of antihypertensives.
Chlorpromazine Chlorpromazine blocks dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake, thus inhibiting the central stimulant effects of amphetamines, and can be used to treat amphetamine poisoning.
Ethosuximide Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of ethosuximide.
Haloperidol Haloperidol blocks dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake, thus inhibiting the central stimulant effects of amphetamines.
Lithium Carbonate The stimulatory effects of amphetamines may be inhibited by lithium carbonate.
Meperidine Amphetamines potentiate the analgesic effect of meperidine.
Methenamine Therapy Urinary excretion of amphetamines is increased, and efficacy is reduced, by acidifying agents used in methenamine therapy.
Norepinephrine Amphetamines enhance the adrenergic effect of norepinephrine.
Phenobarbital Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of phenobarbital; co-administration of phenobarbital may produce a synergistic anticonvulsant action.
Phenytoin Amphetamines may delay intestinal absorption of phenytoin; co-administration of phenytoin may produce a synergistic anticonvulsant action.
Propoxyphene In cases of propoxyphene overdosage, amphetamine CNS stimulation is potentiated and fatal convulsions can occur.
Veratrum Alkaloids Amphetamines inhibit the hypotensive effect of veratrum alkaloids.
Individual patient response to amphetamines varies widely.
While toxic symptoms occasionally occur as an idiosyncrasy at doses as low as 2 mg, they are rare with doses of less than 15 mg; 30 mg can produce severe reactions, yet doses of 400 to 500 mg are not necessarily fatal.
In rats, the oral LD 50 of dextroamphetamine sulfate is 96.8 mg/kg.
Manifestations of acute overdosage with amphetamines include restlessness, tremor, hyperreflexia, rhabdomyolysis, rapid respiration, hyperpyrexia, confusion, assaultiveness, hallucinations, panic states.
Fatigue and depression usually follow the central stimulation.
Cardiovascular effects include arrhythmias, hypertension or hypotension and circulatory collapse.
Gastrointestinal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal cramps.
Fatal poisoning is usually preceded by convulsions and coma.
Treatment Consult with a Certified Poison Control Center for up-to-date guidance and advice.
Management of acute amphetamine intoxication is largely symptomatic and includes gastric lavage, administration of activated charcoal, administration of a cathartic, and sedation.
Experience with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis is inadequate to permit recommendation in this regard.
Acidification of the urine increases amphetamine excretion, but is believed to increase risk of acute renal failure if myoglobinuria is present.
If acute, severe hypertension complicates amphetamine overdosage, administration of intravenous phentolamine has been suggested.
However, a gradual drop in blood pressure will usually result when sufficient sedation has been achieved.
Chlorpromazine antagonizes the central stimulant effects of amphetamines and can be used to treat amphetamine intoxication.
Dextroamphetamine sulfate, USP is the dextro isomer of the compound d,l -amphetamine sulfate, a sympathomimetic amine of the amphetamine group.
Chemically, dextroamphetamine is d -alpha-methylphenethylamine, and is present in all forms of dextroamphetamine sulfate, USP as the neutral sulfate.
The structural formula is as follows: (C9H13N)2∙H2SO4 M.W.
368.49 Inactive Ingredients Calcium sulfate, colloidal silicon dioxide, compressible sugar, corn starch, magnesium stearate, and microcrystalline cellulose.
The 5 mg also contains D&C yellow no.
10 aluminum lake and FD&C red no.
40 aluminum lake.
The 10 mg also contains FD&C red no.
40 aluminum lake and FD&C yellow no.
6 aluminum lake.
Dextroamphetamine Sulfate Tablets USP are available as: 5 mg: Peach, round, flat-faced, bevel edged, scored tablet, debossed “N” score “941” on one side and plain on the other side.
NDC 68382-941-01…………….Bottles of 100 Tablets 10 mg: Pink, round, flat-faced, bevel edged, scored tablet, debossed “N” score “942” on one side and plain on the other side.
NDC 68382-942-01…………….Bottles of 100 Tablets Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP, with a child-resistant closure (as required).
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].
KEEP THIS AND ALL MEDICATIONS OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.
DEA Order Form Required.
Manufactured By: Nesher Pharmaceuticals USA LLC St.
Louis, MO 63044 Distributed by: Zydus Pharmaceuticals USA Inc.
Pennington, NJ 08534 P10138-3 01/2017
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Dextroamphetamine Sulfate Tablets USP are indicated for: Narcolepsy .
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , as an integral part of a total treatment program which typically includes other remedial measures (psychological, educational, social) for a stabilizing effect in pediatric patients (ages 3 to 16 years) with a behavioral syndrome characterized by the following group of developmentally inappropriate symptoms: moderate to severe distractibility, short attention span, hyperactivity, emotional lability, and impulsivity.
The diagnosis of this syndrome should not be made with finality when these symptoms are only of comparatively recent origin.
Nonlocalizing (soft) neurological signs, learning disability, and abnormal EEG may or may not be present, and a diagnosis of central nervous system dysfunction may or may not be warranted.
Pediatric Use Long-term effects of amphetamines in pediatric patients have not been well established.
Amphetamines are not recommended for use in pediatric patients under 3 years of age with Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity described under INDICATIONS AND USAGE .
Clinical experience suggests that in psychotic pediatric patients, administration of amphetamines may exacerbate symptoms of behavior disturbance and thought disorder.
Amphetamines have been reported to exacerbate motor and phonic tics and Tourette’s syndrome.
Therefore, clinical evaluation for tics and Tourette’s syndrome in pediatric patients and their families should precede use of stimulant medications.
Data are inadequate to determine whether chronic administration of amphetamines may be associated with growth inhibition; therefore, growth should be monitored during treatment.
Drug treatment is not indicated in all cases of Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity and should be considered only in light of the complete history and evaluation of the pediatric patient.
The decision to prescribe amphetamines should depend on the physician’s assessment of the chronicity and severity of the pediatric patient’s symptoms and their appropriateness for his/her age.
Prescription should not depend solely on the presence of one or more of the behavioral characteristics.
When these symptoms are associated with acute stress reactions, treatment with amphetamines is usually not indicated.
Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects Pregnancy Category C Dextroamphetamine has been shown to have embryotoxic and teratogenic effects when administered to A/Jax mice and C57BL mice in doses approximately 41 times the maximum human dose.
Embryotoxic effects were not seen in New Zealand white rabbits given the drug in doses 7 times the human dose nor in rats given 12.5 times the maximum human dose.
While there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women, there has been one report of severe congenital bony deformity, tracheoesophageal fistula, and anal atresia (Vater association) in a baby born to a woman who took dextroamphetamine sulfate with lovastatin during the first trimester of pregnancy.
Dextroamphetamine should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Nonteratogenic Effects Infants born to mothers dependent on amphetamines have an increased risk of premature delivery and low birth weight.
Also, these infants may experience symptoms of withdrawal as demonstrated by dysphoria, including agitation, and significant lassitude.
Nursing Mothers Amphetamines are excreted in human milk.
Mothers taking amphetamines should be advised to refrain from nursing.
WARNING AMPHETAMINES HAVE A HIGH POTENTIAL FOR ABUSE.
ADMINISTRATION OF AMPHETAMINES FOR PROLONGED PERIODS OF TIME MAY LEAD TO DRUG DEPENDENCE AND MUST BE AVOIDED.
PARTICULAR ATTENTION SHOULD BE PAID TO THE POSSIBILITY OF SUBJECTS OBTAINING AMPHETAMINES FOR NON-THERAPEUTIC USE OR DISTRIBUTION TO OTHERS, AND THE DRUGS SHOULD BE PRESCRIBED OR DISPENSED SPARINGLY.
MISUSE OF AMPHETAMINES MAY CAUSE SUDDEN DEATH AND SERIOUS CARDIOVASCULAR ADVERSE EVENTS.
WARNING AND CAUTIONS
WARNINGS Serious Cardiovascular Events Sudden Death in Patients with Pre-existing Structural Cardiac Abnormalities or Other Serious Heart Problems Children and Adolescents Sudden death has been reported in association with CNS stimulant treatment at usual doses in children and adolescents with structural cardiac abnormalities or other serious heart problems.
Although some serious heart problems alone carry an increased risk of sudden death, stimulant products generally should not be used in children or adolescents with known serious structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious heart rhythm abnormalities, or other serious cardiac problems that may place them at increased vulnerability to the sympathomimetic effects of a stimulant drug.
Adults Sudden deaths, stroke, and myocardial infarction have been reported in adults taking stimulant drugs at usual doses for ADHD.
Although the role of stimulants in these adult cases is also unknown, adults have a greater likelihood than children of having serious structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious heart rhythm abnormalities, coronary artery disease, or other serious cardiac problems.
Adults with such abnormalities should also generally not be treated with stimulant drugs (see CONTRAINDICATIONS ).
Hypertension and Other Cardiovascular Conditions Stimulant medications cause a modest increase in average blood pressure (about 2-4 mmHg) and average heart rate (about 3-6 bpm), and individuals may have larger increases.
While the mean changes alone would not be expected to have short-term consequences, all patients should be monitored for larger changes in heart rate and blood pressure.
Caution is indicated in treating patients whose underlying medical conditions might be compromised by increases in blood pressure or heart rate, e.g., those with pre-existing hypertension, heart failure, recent myocardial infarction, or ventricular arrhythmia (see CONTRAINDICATIONS ).
Assessing Cardiovascular Status in Patients Being Treated With Stimulant Medications Children, adolescents, or adults who are being considered for treatment with stimulant medications should have a careful history (including assessment for a family history of sudden death or ventricular arrhythmia) and physical exam to assess for the presence of cardiac disease, and should receive further cardiac evaluation if findings suggest such disease (e.g., electrocardiogram and echocardiogram).
Patients who develop symptoms such as exertional chest pain, unexplained syncope, or other symptoms suggestive of cardiac disease during stimulant treatment should undergo a prompt cardiac evaluation.
Psychiatric Adverse Events Pre-Existing Psychosis Administration of stimulants may exacerbate symptoms of behavior disturbance and thought disorder in patients with a pre-existing psychotic disorder.
Bipolar Illness Particular care should be taken in using stimulants to treat ADHD in patients with comorbid bipolar disorder because of concern for possible induction of a mixed/manic episode in such patients.
Prior to initiating treatment with a stimulant, patients with comorbid depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression.
Emergence of New Psychotic or Manic Symptoms Treatment emergent psychotic or manic symptoms, e.g., hallucinations, delusional thinking, or mania in children and adolescents without a prior history of psychotic illness or mania can be caused by stimulants at usual doses.
If such symptoms occur, consideration should be given to a possible causal role of the stimulant, and discontinuation of treatment may be appropriate.
In a pooled analysis of multiple short-term, placebo-controlled studies, such symptoms occurred in about 0.1% (4 patients with events out of 3,482 exposed to methylphenidate or amphetamine for several weeks at usual doses) of stimulant-treated patients compared to 0 in placebo-treated patients.
Aggression Aggressive behavior or hostility is often observed in children and adolescents with ADHD, and has been reported in clinical trials and the postmarketing experience of some medications indicated for the treatment of ADHD.
Although there is no systematic evidence that stimulants cause aggressive behavior or hostility, patients beginning treatment for ADHD should be monitored for the appearance of, or worsening of, aggressive behavior or hostility.
Long-Term Suppression of Growth Careful follow-up of weight and height in children ages 7 to 10 years who were randomized to either methylphenidate or non-medication treatment groups over 14 months, as well as in naturalistic subgroups of newly methylphenidate-treated and non-medication treated children over 36 months (to the ages of 10 to 13 years), suggests that consistently medicated children (i.e., treatment for 7 days per week throughout the year) have a temporary slowing in growth rate (on average, a total of about 2 cm less growth in height and 2.7 kg less growth in weight over 3 years), without evidence of growth rebound during this period of development.
Published data are inadequate to determine whether chronic use of amphetamines may cause a similar suppression of growth, however, it is anticipated that they likely have this effect as well.
Therefore, growth should be monitored during treatment with stimulants, and patients who are not growing or gaining height or weight as expected may need to have their treatment interrupted.
Seizures There is some clinical evidence that stimulants may lower the convulsive threshold in patients with prior history of seizures, in patients with prior EEG abnormalities in absence of seizures, and, very rarely, in patients without a history of seizures and no prior EEG evidence of seizures.
In the presence of seizures, the drug should be discontinued.
Peripheral Vasculopathy, Including Raynaud’s Phenomenon Stimulants, including dextroamphetamine sulfate tablets, used to treat ADHD are associated with peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s phenomenon.
Signs and symptoms are usually intermittent and mild; however, very rare sequelae include digital ulcerations and/or soft tissue breakdown.
Effects of peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s phenomenon, were observed in post-marketing reports at different times and at therapeutic doses in all age groups throughout the course of treatment.
Signs and symptoms generally improve after reduction in dose or discontinuation of drug.
Careful observation for digital changes is necessary during treatment with ADHD stimulants.
Further clinical evaluation (e.g., rheumatology referral) may be appropriate for certain patients.
Serotonin Syndrome Serotonin Syndrome, a potentially life-threatening reaction, may occur when amphetamines are used in combination with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter systems such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, and St.
John’s Wort [see DRUG INTERACTIONS ].
Amphetamines and amphetamine derivatives are known to be metabolized, to some degree, by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and display minor inhibition of CYP2D6 metabolism [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY ].
The potential for a pharmacokinetic interaction exists with the co-administration of CYP2D6 inhibitors which may increase the risk with increased exposure to dextroamphetamine sulfate tablets.
In these situations, consider an alternative non-serotonergic drug or an alternative drug that does not inhibit CYP2D6 [see DRUG INTERACTIONS ].
Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea).
Concomitant use of dextroamphetamine sulfate tablets with MAOI drugs is contraindicated [see CONTRAINDICATIONS ].
Discontinue treatment with dextroamphetamine sulfate tablets and any concomitant serotonergic agents immediately if the above symptoms occur, and initiate supportive symptomatic treatment.
If concomitant use of dextroamphetamine sulfate tablets with other serotonergic drugs or CYP2D6 inhibitors is clinically warranted, initiate dextroamphetamine sulfate tablets with lower doses, monitor patients for the emergence of serotonin syndrome during drug initiation or titration, and inform patients of the increased risk for serotonin syndrome.
Visual Disturbance Difficulties with accommodation and blurring of vision have been reported with stimulant treatment.
INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS
Information for Patients Amphetamines may impair the ability of the patient to engage in potentially hazardous activities such as operating machinery or vehicles; the patient should therefore be cautioned accordingly.
Prescribers or other health professionals should inform patients, their families, and their caregivers about the benefits and risks associated with treatment with dextroamphetamine and should counsel them in its appropriate use.
A patient Medication Guide is available for dextroamphetamine.
The prescriber or health professional should instruct patients, their families, and their caregivers to read the Medication Guide and should assist them in understanding its contents.
Patients should be given the opportunity to discuss the contents of the Medication Guide and to obtain answers to any questions they may have.
The complete text of the Medication Guide is reprinted at the end of this document.
Circulation problems in fingers and toes [Peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s phenomenon] Instruct patients beginning treatment with dextroamphetamine sulfate tablets about the risk of peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s Phenomenon, and associated signs and symptoms: fingers or toes may feel numb, cool, painful, and/or may change color from pale, to blue, to red.
Instruct patients to report to their physician any new numbness, pain, skin color change, or sensitivity to temperature in fingers or toes.
Instruct patients to call their physician immediately with any signs of unexplained wounds appearing on fingers or toes while taking dextroamphetamine sulfate tablets.
Further clinical evaluation (e.g., rheumatology referral) may be appropriate for certain patients.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Amphetamines should be administered at the lowest effective dosage and dosage should be individually adjusted.
Late evening doses should be avoided because of the resulting insomnia.
Narcolepsy Usual dose is 5 to 60 mg per day in divided doses, depending on the individual patient response.
Narcolepsy seldom occurs in children under 12 years of age; however, when it does, dextroamphetamine sulfate may be used.
The suggested initial dose for patients aged 6 to 12 is 5 mg daily; daily dose may be raised in increments of 5 mg at weekly intervals until an optimal response is obtained.
In patients 12 years of age and older, start with 10 mg daily; daily dosage may be raised in increments of 10 mg at weekly intervals until optimal response is obtained.
If bothersome adverse reactions appear (e.g., insomnia or anorexia), dosage should be reduced.
Give first dose on awakening; additional doses (1 or 2) at intervals of 4 to 6 hours.
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity Not recommended for pediatric patients under 3 years of age.
In pediatric patients from 3 to 5 years of age , start with 2.5 mg daily; daily dosage may be raised in increments of 2.5 mg at weekly intervals until optimal response is obtained.
In pediatric patients 6 years of age and older , start with 5 mg once or twice daily; daily dosage may be raised in increments of 5 mg at weekly intervals until optimal response is obtained.
Only in rare cases will it be necessary to exceed a total of 40 mg per day.
Give first dose on awakening; additional doses (1 or 2) at intervals of 4 to 6 hours.
Where possible, drug administration should be interrupted occasionally to determine if there is a recurrence of behavioral symptoms sufficient to require continued therapy.