busPIRone HCl 5 MG Oral Tablet
Generic Name: BUSPIRONE HYDROCHLORIDE
Brand Name: Buspirone HCl
- Substance Name(s):
- BUSPIRONE HYDROCHLORIDE
The administration of buspirone to a patient taking a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) may pose a hazard. There have been reports of the occurrence of elevated blood pressure when buspirone has been added to a regimen including an MAOI. Therefore, it is recommended that buspirone not be used concomitantly with an MAOI. Because buspirone has no established antipsychotic activity, it should not be employed in lieu of appropriate antipsychotic treatment.
Drug Interactions Psychotropic Agents MAO Inhibitors: It is recommended that buspirone hydrocloride not be used concomitantly with MAO inhibitors (see WARNINGS section). Amitriptyline: After addition of buspirone to the amitriptyline dose regimen, no statistically significant differences in the steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax, AUC, and Cmin) of amitriptyline or its metabolite nortriptyline were observed. Diazepam: After addition of buspirone to the diazepam dose regimen, no statistically significant differences in the steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax, AUC, and Cmin) were observed for diazepam, but increases of about 15% were seen for nordiazepam, and minor adverse clinical effects (dizziness, headache, and nausea) were observed. Haloperidol: In a study in normal volunteers, concomitant administration of buspirone and haloperidol resulted in increased serum haloperidol concentrations. The clinical significance of this finding is not clear. Nefazodone: [See Inhibitors and Inducers of Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). ] Trazodone: There is one report suggesting that the concomitant use of trazodone hydrochloride and buspirone may have caused 3- to 6-fold elevations on SGPT (ALT) in a few patients. In a similar study attempting to replicate this finding, no interactive effect on hepatic transaminases was identified. Triazolam/Flurazepam: Coadministration of buspirone with either triazolam or flurazepam did not appear to prolong or intensify the sedative effects of either benzodiazepine. Other Psychotropics: Because the effects of concomitant administration of buspirone with most other psychotropic drugs have not been studied, the concomitant use of buspirone with other CNS-active drugs should be approached with caution. Inhibitors and Inducers of Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) Buspirone has been shown in vitro to be metabolized by CYP3A4. This finding is consistent with the in vivo interactions observed between buspirone and the following: Diltiazem and Verapamil: In a study of nine healthy volunteers, coadministration of buspirone (10 mg as a single dose) with verapamil (80 mg t.i.d.) or diltiazem (60 mg t.i.d.) increased plasma buspirone concentrations (verapamil increased AUC and Cmax of buspirone 3.4-fold while diltiazem increased AUC and Cmax 5.3-fold and 4-fold, respectively.) Adverse events attributable to buspirone may be more likely during concomitant administration with either diltiazem or verapamil. Subsequent dose adjustment may be necessary and should be based on clinical assessment. Erythromycin: In a study in healthy volunteers, coadministration of buspirone (10 mg as a single dose) with erythromycin (1.5 g/day for 4 days) increased plasma buspirone concentrations (5-fold increase in Cmax and 6-fold increase in AUC). These pharmacokinetic interactions were accompanied by an increased incidence of side effects attributable to buspirone. If the two drugs are to be used in combination, a low dose of buspirone (eg, 2.5 mg b.i.d.) is recommended. Subsequent dose adjustment of either drug should be based on clinical assessment. Grapefruit Juice: In a study in healthy volunteers, coadministration of buspirone (10 mg as a single dose) with grapefruit juice (200 mL double-strength t.i.d. for 2 days) increased plasma buspirone concentrations (4.3-fold increase in Cmax; 9.2-fold increase in AUC). Patients receiving buspirone should be advised to avoid drinking such large amounts of grapefruit juice. Itraconazole: In a study in healthy volunteers, coadministration of buspirone (10 mg as a single dose) with itraconazole (200 mg/day for 4 days) increased plasma buspirone concentrations (13-fold increase in Cmax and 19-fold increase in AUC). These pharmacokinetic interactions were accompanied by an increased incidence of side effects attributable to buspirone. If the two drugs are to be used in combination, a low dose of buspirone (eg, 2.5 mg every day) is recommended. Subsequent dose adjustment of either drug should be based on clinical assessment. Nefazodone: In a study of steady-state pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers, coadministration of buspirone (2.5 or 5 mg b.i.d.) with nefazodone (250 mg b.i.d.) resulted in marked increases in plasma buspirone concentrations (increases up to 20-fold in Cmax and up to 50-fold in AUC) and statistically significant decreases (about 50%) in plasma concentrations of the buspirone metabolite 1-PP. With 5 mg b.i.d. doses of buspirone, slight increases in AUC were observed for nefazodone (23%) and its metabolites hydroxynefazodone (HO-NEF) (17%) and meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (9%). Slight increases in Cmax were observed for nefazodone (8%) and its metabolite HO-NEF (11%). Subjects receiving buspirone 5 mg b.i.d. and nefazodone 250 mg b.i.d. experienced lightheadedness, asthenia, dizziness, and somnolence, adverse events also observed with either drug alone. If the two drugs are to be used in combination, a low dose of buspirone (eg, 2.5 mg every day) is recommended. Subsequent dose adjustment of either drug should be based on clinical assessment. Rifampin: In a study in healthy volunteers, coadministration of buspirone (30 mg as a single dose) with rifampin (600 mg/day for 5 days) decreased the plasma concentrations (83.7% decrease in Cmax; 89.6% decrease in AUC) and pharmacodynamic effects of buspirone. If the two drugs are to be used in combination, the dosage of buspirone may need adjusting to maintain anxiolytic effect Other Inhibitors and Inducers of CYP3A4: Substances that inhibit CYP3A4, such as ketoconazole or ritonavir, may inhibit buspirone metabolism and increase plasma concentrations of buspirone while substances that induce CYP3A4, such as dexamethasone, or certain anticonvulsants (phenytoin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine), may increase the rate of buspirone metabolism. If a patient has been titrated to a stable dosage on buspirone, a dose adjustment of buspirone may be necessary to avoid adverse events attributable to buspirone or diminished anxiolytic activity. Consequently, when administered with a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, a low dose of buspirone used cautiously is recommended. When used in combination with a potent inducer of CYP3A4 the dosage of buspirone may need adjusting to maintain anxiolytic effect.
Signs and Symptoms In clinical pharmacology trials, doses as high as 375 mg/day were administered to healthy male volunteers. As this dose was approached, the following symptoms were observed: nausea, vomiting, dizziness, drowsiness, miosis, and gastric distress. A few cases of overdosage have been reported, with complete recovery as the usual outcome. No deaths have been reported following overdosage with buspirone alone. Rare cases of intentional overdosage with a fatal outcome were invariably associated with ingestion of multiple drugs and/or alcohol, and a casual relationship of buspirone could not be determined. Toxicology studies of buspirone yielded the following LD50 values: mice, 655 mg/kg; rats, 196 mg/kg; dogs, 586 mg/kg; and monkeys, 356 mg/kg. These dosages are 160 to 550 times the recommended human daily dose. Recommended Overdose Treatment General symptomatic and supportive measures should be used along with immediate gastric lavage. Respiration, pulse, and blood pressure should be monitored as in all cases of drug overdosage. No specific antidote is known to buspirone, and dialyzability of buspirone has not been determined.
Buspirone hydrochloride is an antianxiety agent that is not chemically or pharmacologically related to the benzodiazepines, barbiturates, or other sedative/anxiolytic drugs. Buspirone hydrochloride is a white, crystalline, water soluble compound with a molecular weight of 422.0. Chemically buspirone hydrochloride is 8-[4-[4-(2-pyrimidinyl)-1-piperazinyl]-butyl]-8-azaspiro[4,5]decane-7,9- dione monohydrochloride. The molecular formula C21H31N5O2 • HCl is represented by the following structural formula: Each tablet for oral administration contains 5 mg, 10 mg, or 15 mg of buspirone hydrochloride USP (equivalent to 4.6 mg, 9.1 mg, and 13.7 mg of buspirone free base respectively). The 5 mg and 10 mg tablets are scored so they can be bisected. Thus, the 5 mg tablet can also provide a 2.5 mg dose, and the 10 mg tablet can provide a 5 mg dose. The 15 mg tablet is provided in a special tablet design. This tablet is scored so it can be either bisected or trisected. Thus, a single 15 mg tablet can provide the following doses: 15 mg (entire tablet), 10 mg (two-thirds of a tablet), 7.5 mg (one-half of a tablet), or 5 mg (one-third of a tablet). In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and sodium starch glycolate.
Buspirone HCl Tablets USP are supplied as follows: 5 mg tablets: White, oval, biconvex, scored tablets, debossed WATSON and 657, in bottles of 100, 500, and 1000. 10 mg tablets: White, oval, biconvex, scored tablets, debossed WATSON and 658, in bottles of 100, 500, and 1000. 15 mg tablets: White, oval shaped, scored tablets, debossed with the Watson logo and 718, and scoring on both sides so it can be either bisected or trisected, in bottles of 60, 180, 500, and 1000. Store at 20° – 25°C (68°- 77°F). [See USP controlled room temperature]. Protect from temperatures greater than 30°C (86°F). Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in USP/NF.
Geriatric Use In one study of 6632 patients who received buspirone for the treatment of anxiety, 605 patients were ≥ 65 years old and 41 were ≥ 75 years old; the safety and efficacy profiles for these 605 elderly patients (mean age =70.8 years) were similar to those in the younger population (mean age = 43.3 years). Review of spontaneously reported adverse clinical events has not identified differences between elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older patients cannot be ruled out. There were no effects of age on the pharmacokinetics of buspirone (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Special Populations section).
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Buspirone hydrochloride tablets are indicated for the management of anxiety disorders or the short-term relief of the symptoms of anxiety. Anxiety or tension associated with the stress of everyday life usually does not require treatment with an anxiolytic. The efficacy of buspirone has been demonstrated in controlled clinical trials of outpatients whose diagnosis roughly corresponds to Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Many of the patients enrolled in these studies also had coexisting depressive symptoms and buspirone relieved anxiety in the presence of these coexisting depressive symptoms. The patients evaluated in these studies had experienced symptoms for periods of 1 month to over 1 year prior to the study, with an average symptom duration of 6 months. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (300.02) is described in the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, lll1 as follows: Generalized, persistent anxiety (of at least 1 month continual duration), manifested by symptoms from three of the four following categories: Motor tension: shakiness, jitteriness, jumpiness, trembling, tension, muscle aches, fatigability, inability to relax, eyelid twitch, furrowed brow, strained face, fidgeting, restlessness, easy startle. Autonomic hyperactivity: sweating, heart pounding or racing, cold, clammy hands, dry mouth, dizziness, lightheadedness, paresthesias (tingling in hands or feet), upset stomach, hot or cold spells, frequent urination, diarrhea, discomfort in the pit of the stomach, lump in the throat, flushing, pallor, high resting pulse, and respiration rate. Apprehensive expectation: anxiety, worry, fear, rumination, and anticipation of misfortune to self or others. Vigilance and scanning: hyperattentiveness resulting in distractibility, difficulty in concentrating, insomnia, feeling “on edge”, irritability, impatience. The above symptoms would not be due to another mental disorder, such as a depressive disorder or schizophrenia. However, mild depressive symptoms are common in GAD. The effectiveness of buspirone in long-term use, that is, for more than 3 to 4 weeks, has not been demonstrated in controlled trials. There is no body of evidence available that systematically addresses the appropriate duration of treatment for GAD. However, in a study of long-term use, 264 patients were treated with buspirone for 1 year without ill effect. Therefore, the physician who elects to use buspirone for extended periods should periodically reassess the usefulness of the drug for the individual patient.
Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of buspirone were evaluated in two placebo-controlled 6-week trials involving a total of 559 pediatric patients (ranging from 6 to 17 years of age) with GAD. Doses studied were 7.5-30 mg b.i.d. (15-60 mg/day). There were no significant differences between buspirone and placebo with regard to the symptoms of GAD following doses recommended for the treatment of GAD in adults. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that, for identical doses, plasma exposure to buspirone and its active metabolite, 1-PP, are equal to or higher in pediatric patients than adults. No unexpected safety findings were associated with buspirone in these trials. There are no long-term safety or efficacy data in this population.
Pregnancy: Teratogenic Effects Pregnancy Category B: No fertility impairment or fetal damage was observed in reproduction studies performed in rats and rabbits at buspirone doses of approximately 30 times the maximum recommended human dose. In humans, however, adequate and well-controlled studies during pregnancy have not been performed. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Nursing Mothers The extent of the excretion in human milk of buspirone or its metabolites is not known. In rats, however, buspirone and its metabolites are excreted in milk. Buspirone administration to nursing women should be avoided if clinically possible.
INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS
Information for Patients To assure safe and effective use of buspirone hydrochloride tablets, the following information and instructions should be given to patients: Inform your physician about any medications, prescription or non-prescription, alcohol, or drugs that you are now taking or plan to take during your treatment with buspirone. Inform your physician if you are pregnant, or if you are planning to become pregnant, or if you become pregnant while you are taking buspirone. Inform your physician if you are breast-feeding an infant. Until you experience how this medication affects you, do not drive a car or operate potentially dangerous machinery. You should take buspirone consistently, either always with or always without food. During your treatment with buspirone, avoid drinking large amounts of grapefruit juice.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The recommended initial dose is 15 mg daily (7.5 mg b.i.d.). To achieve an optimal therapeutic response, at intervals of 2 to 3 days the dosage may be increased 5 mg per day, as needed. The maximum daily dosage should not exceed 60 mg per day. In clinical trials allowing dose titration, divided doses of 20 to 30 mg per day were commonly employed. The bioavailability of buspirone is increased when given with food as compared to the fasted state (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY section). Consequently, patients should take buspirone in a consistent manner with regard to the timing of dosing; either always with or always without food. When buspirone is to be given with a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 the dosage recommendations described in the PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions section should be followed.