Few systemic data have been collected on the metabolism of bupropion following concomitant administration with other drugs or, alternatively, the effect of concomitant administration of bupropion on the metabolism of other drugs. Because bupropion is extensively metabolized, the coadministration of other drugs may affect its clinical activity. In vitro studies indicate that bupropion is primarily metabolized to hydroxybupropion by the CYP2B6 isoenzyme. Therefore, the potential exists for a drug interaction between bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) and drugs that are substrates of inhibitors/inducers of the CYP2B6 isoenzyme (e.g., orphenadrine, thiotepa, cyclophosphamide, ticlopidine, and clopidogrel). In addition, in vitro studies suggest that paroxetine, sertraline, norfluoxetine, and fluvoxamine as well as nelfinavir, ritonavir and efavirenz inhibit the hydroxylation of bupropion. No clinical studies have been performed to evaluate this finding. The threohydrobupropion metabolite of bupropion does not appear to be produced by the cytochrome P450 isoenzymes. The effects of concomitant administration of cimetidine on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion and its active metabolites were studied in 24 healthy young male volunteers. Following oral administration of two 150-mg tablets of the sustained-release formulation of bupropion with and without 800 mg of cimetidine, the pharmacokinetics of bupropion and hydroxybupropion were unaffected. However, there were 16% and 32% increases in the AUC and Cmax, respectively, of the combined moieties of threohydrobupropion and erythrohydrobupropion. In a series of studies in healthy volunteers, ritonavir (100 mg twice daily or 600 mg twice daily) or ritonavir 100 mg plus lopinavir 400 mg (KALETRA) twice daily reduced the exposure of bupropion and its major metabolites in a dose dependent manner by approximately 20% to 80%. This effect is thought to be due to the induction of bupropion metabolism. Patients receiving ritonavir may need increased doses of bupropion, but the maximum recommended dose of bupropion should not be exceeded (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Metabolism ). While not systematically studied, certain drugs may induce the metabolism of bupropion (e.g., carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin). Multiple oral doses of bupropion had no statistically significant effects on the single dose pharmacokinetics of lamotrigine in 12 healthy volunteers. Animal data indicated that bupropion may be an inducer of drug-metabolizing enzymes in humans. In one study, following chronic administration of bupropion, 100 mg 3 times daily to 8 healthy male volunteers for 14 days, there was no evidence of induction of its own metabolism. Nevertheless, there may be the potential for clinically important alterations of blood levels of coadministered drugs. Drugs Metabolized By Cytochrome P450IID6 (CYP2D6): Many drugs, including most antidepressants (SSRIs, many tricyclics), beta-blockers, antiarrhythmics, and antipsychotics are metabolized by the CYP2D6 isoenzyme. Although bupropion is not metabolized by this isoenzyme, bupropion and hydroxybupropion are inhibitors of CYP2D6 isoenzyme in vitro. In a study of 15 male subjects (ages 19 to 35 years) who were extensive metabolizers of the CYP2D6 isoenzyme, daily doses of bupropion given as 150 mg twice daily followed by a single dose of 50 mg desipramine increased the Cmax, AUC, and t1/2 of desipramine by an average of approximately 2-, 5-, and 2-fold, respectively. The effect was present for at least 7 days after the last dose of bupropion. Concomitant use of bupropion with other drugs metabolized by CYP2D6 has not been formally studied. Therefore, coadministration of bupropion with drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 isoenzyme including certain antidepressants (e.g., nortriptyline, imipramine, desipramine, paroxetine, fluoxetine, sertraline), antipsychotics (e.g., haloperidol, risperidone, thioridazine), beta-blockers (e.g., metoprolol), and Type 1C antiarrhythmics (e.g., propafenone, flecainide), should be approached with caution and should be initiated at the lower end of the dose range of the concomitant medication. If bupropion is added to the treatment regimen of a patient already receiving a drug metabolized by CYP2D6, the need to decrease the dose of the original medication should be considered, particularly for those concomitant medications with a narrow therapeutic index. Although citalopram is not primarily metabolized by CYP2D6, in one study bupropion increased the Cmax and AUC of citalopram by 30% and 40%, respectively. Citalopram did not affect the pharmacokinetics of bupropion and its three metabolites. MAO Inhibitors: Studies in animals demonstrate that the acute toxicity of bupropion is enhanced by the MAO inhibitor phenelzine (see CONTRAINDICATIONS ). Levodopa and Amantadine: Limited clinical data suggest a higher incidence of adverse experiences in patients receiving bupropion concurrently with either levodopa or amantadine. Administration of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) to patients receiving either levodopa or amantadine concurrently should be undertaken with caution, using small initial doses and gradual dose increases. Drugs That Lower Seizure Threshold: Concurrent administration of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) and agents (e.g., antipsychotics, other antidepressants, theophylline, systemic steroids, etc.) that lower seizure threshold should be undertaken only with extreme caution (see WARNINGS ). Low initial dosing and gradual dose increases should be employed. Nicotine Transdermal System: (see PRECAUTIONS: Cardiovascular Effects ). Alcohol: In postmarketing experience, there have been rare reports of adverse neuropsychiatric events or reduced alcohol tolerance in patients who were drinking alcohol during treatment with bupropion. The consumption of alcohol during treatment with bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should be minimized or avoided (also see CONTRAINDICATIONS ).
Human Overdose Experience: Overdoses of up to 30 g or more of bupropion have been reported. Seizure was reported in approximately one third of all cases. Other serious reactions reported with overdoses of bupropion alone included hallucinations, loss of consciousness, sinus tachycardia, and ECG changes such as conduction disturbances (including QRS prolongation) or arrhythmias. Fever, muscle rigidity, rhabdomyolysis, hypotension, stupor, coma, and respiratory failure have been reported mainly when bupropion was part of multiple drug overdoses. Although most patients recovered without sequelae, deaths associated with overdoses of bupropion alone have been reported in patients ingesting large doses of the drug. Multiple uncontrolled seizures, bradycardia, cardiac failure, and cardiac arrest prior to death were reported in these patients. Overdosage Management: Ensure an adequate airway, oxygenation, and ventilation. Monitor cardiac rhythm and vital signs. EEG monitoring is also recommended for the first 48 hours post-ingestion. General supportive and symptomatic measures are also recommended. Induction of emesis is not recommended. Activated charcoal should be administered. There is no experience with the use of forced diuresis, dialysis, hemoperfusion, or exchange transfusion in the management of bupropion overdoses. No specific antidotes for bupropion are known. Due to the dose-related risk of seizures with bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL), hospitalization following suspected overdose should be considered. Based on studies in animals, it is recommended that seizures be treated with intravenous benzodiazepine administration and other supportive measures, as appropriate. In managing overdosage, consider the possibility of multiple drug involvement. The physician should consider contacting a poison control center for additional information on the treatment of any overdose. Telephone numbers for certified poison control centers are listed in the Physicians’Desk Reference (PDR).
hydrochloride. The molecular weight is 276.2. The molecular formula is C13H18ClNOHCl. Bupropion hydrochloride powder is white, crystalline, and highly soluble in water. It has a bitter taste and produces the sensation of local anesthesia on the oral mucosa. The structural formula is: Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) are supplied for oral administration as 150 mg and 300-mg, off-white extended-release tablets. Each tablet contains the labeled amount of bupropion hydrochloride and the inactive ingredients: copovidone, hydroxypropyl cellulose, colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate, polyvinyl alcohol, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol, talc, methacrylic acid copolymer type c, triethyl citrate, colloidal anhydrous silica, sodium bicarbonate, sodium lauryl sulfate, povidone, purified water, and hydrochloric acid. The insoluble shell of the extended-release tablet may remain intact during gastrointestinal transit and is eliminated in the feces. MM1
Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL), 150 mg of bupropion hydrochloride, are off-white, round, tablets debossed into the surface with “141” in bottles of 30 tablets (NDC 67767-141-30) and 90 tablets (NDC 67767-141-90). Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL), 300 mg of bupropion hydrochloride, are off-white, oval, tablets debossed into the surface with “142” in bottles of 30 tablets (NDC 67767-142-30), 90 tablets (NDC 67767-142-90) and 500 tablets (NDC 67767-142-05).
Of the approximately 6,000 patients who participated in clinical trials with bupropion sustained-release tablets (depression and smoking cessation studies), 275 wereyears old and 47 wereyears old. In addition, several hundred patients 65 and over participated in clinical trials using the immediate-release formulation of bupropion (depression studies). No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. Reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. A single-dose pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that the disposition of bupropion and its metabolites in elderly subjects was similar to that of younger subjects; however, another pharmacokinetic study, single and multiple dose, has suggested that the elderly are at increased risk for accumulation of bupropion and its metabolites (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY ). Bupropion is extensively metabolized in the liver to active metabolites, which are further metabolized and excreted by the kidneys. The risk of toxic reaction to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function (see PRECAUTIONS: Renal Impairmen t and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
INDICATIONS & USAGE Major Depressive Disorder: Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) are indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder. The efficacy of bupropion in the treatment of a major depressive episode was established in two 4-week controlled trials of inpatients and in one 6-week controlled trial of outpatients whose diagnoses corresponded most closely to the Major Depression category of the APA Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) (see CLINICAL TRIALS ). A major depressive episode (DSM-IV) implies the presence of 1) depressed mood or 2) loss of interest or pleasure; in addition, at least 5 of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-week period and represent a change from previous functioning: depressed mood, markedly diminished interest or pleasure in usual activities, significant change in weight and/or appetite, insomnia or hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation or retardation, increased fatigue, feelings of guilt or worthlessness, slowed thinking or impaired concentration, a suicide attempt, or suicidal ideation. The efficacy of bupropion in maintaining an antidepressant response for up to 44 weeks following 8 weeks of acute treatment was demonstrated in a placebo-controlled trial with the sustained-release formulation of bupropion (see CLINICAL TRIALS ). Nevertheless, the physician who elects to use bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) for extended periods should periodically reevaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient. Seasonal Affective Disorder: Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) are indicated for the prevention of seasonal major depressive episodes in patients with a diagnosis of seasonal affective disorder. The efficacy of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) for the prevention of seasonal major depressive episodes was established in 3 controlled trials of adult outpatients with a history of major depressive disorder with an autumn-winter seasonal pattern as defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) criteria (see CLINICAL TRIALS ). Seasonal affective disorder is characterized by recurrent major depressive episodes, most commonly occurring during the autumn and/or winter months. Episodes may last up to 6 months in duration, typically beginning in the autumn and remitting in the springtime. Although patients with seasonal affective disorder may have depressive episodes during other times of the year, the diagnosis of seasonal affective disorder requires that the number of seasonal episodes substantially outnumber the number of non-seasonal episodes during the individual’s lifetime.
Safety and effectiveness in the pediatric population have not been established (see BOX WARNING and WARNINGS: Clinical Worsening and Suicide Risk in Treating Psychiatric Disorders ). Anyone considering the use of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) in a child or adolescent must balance the potential risks with the clinical need.
Teratogenic Effects When rats were administered bupropion at oral doses of up to 300 mg/kg/day (approximately 7 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation, there were no apparent adverse effects on offspring development. One study has been conducted in pregnant women. This retrospective, managed-care database study assessed the risk of congenital malformations overall, and cardiovascular malformations specifically, following exposure to bupropion in the first trimester compared to the risk of these malformations following exposure to other antidepressants in the first trimester and bupropion outside of the first trimester. This study included 7,005 infants with antidepressant exposure during pregnancy, 1,213 of whom were exposed to bupropion in the first trimester. The study showed no greater risk for congenital malformations overall, or cardiovascular malformations specifically, following first trimester bupropion exposure compared to exposure to all other antidepressants in the first trimester, or bupropion outside of the first trimester. The results of this study have not been corroborated. Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
NURSING MOTHERS Like many other drugs, bupropion and its metabolites are secreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL), a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
WARNING Suicidality and Antidepressant Drugs Use in Treating Psychiatric Disorders: WARNINGS: Clinical Worsening and Suicide Risk in Treating Psychiatric Disorders PRECAUTIONS: Information for Patients , and PRECAUTIONS: Pediatric Use .) Use in Smoking Cessation Treatment: WELLBUTRINWELLBUTRIN SRand bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) are not approved for smoking cessation treatment, but bupropion under the name ZYBANis approved for this use. Serious neuropsychiatric events, including but not limited to depression, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and completed suicide have been reported in patients taking bupropion for smoking cessation. Some cases may have been complicated by the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal in patients who stopped smoking. Depressed mood may be a symptom of nicotine withdrawal. Depression, rarely including suicidal ideation, has been reported in smokers undergoing a smoking cessation attempt without medication. However, some of these symptoms have occurred in patients taking bupropion who continued to smoke. All patients treated with bupropion for smoking cessation treatment should be observed for neuropsychiatric symptoms including changes in behavior, hostility, agitation, depressed mood, and suicide-related events, including ideation, behavior, and attempted suicide. These symptoms, as well as worsening of pre-existing psychiatric illness and completed suicide have been reported in some patients attempting to quit smoking while taking ZYBANin the post-marketing experience. When symptoms were reported, most were during treatment with ZYBANbut some were following discontinuation of treatment with ZYBAN Advise patients and caregivers that the patient using bupropion for smoking cessation should stop taking bupropion and contact a healthcare provider immediately if agitation, hostility, depressed mood, or changes in thinking or behavior that are not typical for the patient are observed, or if the patient develops suicidal ideation or suicidal behavior. In many post-marketing cases, resolution of symptoms after discontinuation of ZYBAN The risks of using bupropion for smoking cessation should be weighed against the benefits of its use. ZYBANhas been demonstrated to increase the likelihood of abstinence from smoking for as long as six months compared to treatment with placebo. The health benefits of quitting smoking are immediate and substantial. (See WARNINGS: Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and Suicide Risk in Smoking Cessation Treatment and PRECAUTIONS: Information for Patients .)
INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS
Prescribers or other health professionals should inform patients, their families, and their caregivers about the benefits and risks associated with treatment with bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) and should counsel them in its appropriate use. A patient Medication Guide about Antidepressant Medicines, Depression and Other Serious Mental Illnesses, and Suicidal Thoughts or Actions,Quitting Smoking, Quit-Smoking Medication, Changes in Thinking and Behavior, Depression, and Suicidal Thoughts or Actions, andWhat other important information should I know about bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) ? is available for bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) . The prescriber or health professional should instruct patients, their families, and their caregivers to read the Medication Guide and should assist them in understanding its contents. Patients should be given the opportunity to discuss the contents of the Medication Guide and to obtain answers to any questions they may have. The complete text of the Medication Guide is reprinted at the end of this document. Patients should be advised of the following issues and asked to alert their prescriber if these occur while taking bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL). Clinical Worsening and Suicide Risk in Treating Psychiatric Disorders: Patients, their families, and their caregivers should be encouraged to be alert to the emergence of anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, mania, other unusual changes in behavior, worsening of depression, and suicidal ideation, especially early during antidepressant treatment and when the dose is adjusted up or down. Families and caregivers of patients should be advised to look for the emergence of such symptoms on a day-to-day basis, since changes may be abrupt. Such symptoms should be reported to the patient’s prescriber or health professional, especially if they are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient’s presenting symptoms. Symptoms such as these may be associated with an increased risk for suicidal thinking and behavior and indicate a need for very close monitoring and possibly changes in the medication. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and Suicide Risk in Smoking Cessation Treatment: Although bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) are not indicated for smoking cessation treatment, it contains the same active ingredient as ZYBANwhich is approved for this use. Patients should be informed that quitting smoking, with or without ZYBANmay be associated with nicotine withdrawal symptoms (including depression or agitation), or exacerbation of pre-existing psychiatric illness. Furthermore some patients have experienced changes in mood (including depression and mania), psychosis, hallucinations, paranoia, delusions, homicidal ideation, aggression, anxiety, and panic, as well as suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and completed suicide when attempting to quit smoking while taking ZYBANIf patients develop agitation, hostility, depressed mood, or changes in thinking or behavior that are not typical for them, or if patients develop suicidal ideation or behavior, they should be urged to report these symptoms to their healthcare provider immediately. Bupropion-Containing Products: Patients should be made aware that bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) contains the same active ingredient found in ZYBANused as an aid to smoking cessation treatment, and that bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should not be used in combination with ZYBANor any other medications that contain bupropion hydrochloride (such as WELLBUTRIN SRthe sustained-release formulation, and WELLBUTRINthe immediate-release formulation). Patients should be told that bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should be discontinued and not restarted if they experience a seizure while on treatment Patients should be told that any CNS-active drug like bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) may impair their ability to perform tasks requiring judgment or motor and cognitive skills. Consequently, until they are reasonably certain that bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) does not adversely affect their performance, they should refrain from driving an automobile or operating complex, hazardous machinery. Patients should be told that the excessive use or abrupt discontinuation of alcohol or sedatives (including benzodiazepines) may alter the seizure threshold. Some patients have reported lower alcohol tolerance during treatment with bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL). Patients should be advised that the consumption of alcohol should be minimized or avoided. Patients should be advised to inform their physicians if they are taking or plan to take any prescription or over-the-counter drugs. Concern is warranted because bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) and other drugs may affect each other’s metabolism. Patients should be advised to notify their physicians if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during therapy. Patients should be advised to swallow bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) whole so that the release rate is not altered. Do not chew, divide, or crush tablets, as this may lead to an increased risk of adverse effects, including seizures. Patients should be advised that they may notice in their stool something that looks like a tablet. This is normal. The medication in bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) is contained in a non-absorbable shell that has been specially designed to slowly release drug in the body. When this process is completed, the empty shell is eliminated from the body.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION General Dosing Considerations: It is particularly important to administer bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) in a manner most likely to minimize the risk of seizure (see WARNINGS ). Gradual escalation in dosage is also important if agitation, motor restlessness, and insomnia, often seen during the initial days of treatment, are to be minimized. If necessary, these effects may be managed by temporary reduction of dose or the short-term administration of an intermediate to long-acting sedative hypnotic. A sedative hypnotic usually is not required beyond the first week of treatment. Insomnia may also be minimized by avoiding bedtime doses. If distressing, untoward effects supervene, dose escalation should be stopped. Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should be swallowed whole and not crushed, divided, or chewed. Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) may be taken without regard to meals. Major Depressive Disorder:Initial Treatment: The usual adult target dose for bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) is 300 mg/day, given once daily in the morning. Dosing with bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should begin at 150 mg/day given as a single daily dose in the morning. If the 150-mg initial dose is adequately tolerated, an increase to the 300-mg/day target dose, given as once daily, may be made as early as day 4 of dosing, as this may lead to an increased risk of adverse effects including seizures. There should be an interval of at least 24 hours between successive doses. Increasing the Dosage Above 300 mg/day: As with other antidepressants, the full antidepressant effect of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) may not be evident until 4 weeks of treatment or longer. An increase in dosage to the maximum of 450 mg/day, given as a single dose, may be considered for patients in whom no clinical improvement is noted after several weeks of treatment at 300 mg/day. Maintenance Treatment: It is generally agreed that acute episodes of depression require several months or longer of sustained pharmacological therapy beyond response to the acute episode. It is unknown whether or not the dose of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) needed for maintenance treatment is identical to the dose needed to achieve an initial response. Patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for maintenance treatment and the appropriate dose for such treatment. Seasonal Affective Disorder: For the prevention of seasonal major depressive episodes associated with seasonal affective disorder, bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should generally be initiated in the autumn prior to the onset of depressive symptoms. Treatment should continue through the winter season and should be tapered and discontinued in early spring. The timing of initiation and duration of treatment should be individualized based on the patient’s historical pattern of seasonal major depressive episodes. Patients whose seasonal depressive episodes are infrequent or not associated with significant impairment should not generally be treated prophylactically. Dosing with bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should begin at 150 mg/day given as a single daily dose in the morning. If the 150-mg initial dose is adequately tolerated, the dose of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should be increased to the 300-mg/day dose after 1 week. If the 300-mg dose is not adequately tolerated, the dose can be reduced to 150 mg/day. The usual adult target dose for bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) is 300 mg/day, given once daily in the morning. For patients taking 300 mg/day during the autumn-winter season, the dose should be tapered to 150 mg/day for 2 weeks prior to discontinuation. Doses of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) above 300 mg/day have not been studied for the prevention of seasonal major depressive episodes. Switching Patients from WELLBUTRINTablets or from WELLBUTRIN SRSustained-Release Tablets: When switching patients from WELLBUTRINTablets to bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) or from WELLBUTRIN SRSustained-Release Tablets to bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL), give the same total daily dose when possible. Patients who are currently being treated with WELLBUTRINTablets at 300 mg/day (for example, 100 mg 3 times a day) may be switched to bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) 300 mg once daily. Patients who are currently being treated with WELLBUTRIN SRSustained-Release Tablets at 300 mg/day (for example, 150 mg twice daily) may be switched to bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) 300 mg once daily Dosage Adjustment for Patients with Impaired Hepatic Function: Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should be used with extreme caution in patients with severe hepatic cirrhosis. The dose should not exceed 150 mg every other day in these patients. bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should be used with caution in patients with hepatic impairment (including mild-to-moderate hepatic cirrhosis) and a reduced frequency and/or dose should be considered in patients with mild-to-moderate hepatic cirrhosis (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY , WARNINGS , and PRECAUTIONS ). Dosage Adjustment for Patients with Impaired Renal Function: Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should be used with caution in patients with renal impairment and a reduced frequency and/or dose should be considered (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and PRECAUTIONS ).