7 MAOIs MAOIs should not be used within 14 days of trazodone [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.8 )].
Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants Trazodone may enhance the response to alcohol, barbiturates, and other CNS depressants.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 Inhibitors In vitro drug metabolism studies suggest that there is a potential for drug interactions when trazodone is given with cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitors.
The effect of short-term administration of ritonavir (200 mg twice daily, 4 doses) on the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of trazodone (50 mg) has been studied in 10 healthy subjects.
The C max of trazodone increased by 34%, the AUC increased 2.4 fold, the half-life increased by 2.2 fold, and the clearance decreased by 52%.
Adverse effects including nausea, hypotension, and syncope were observed when ritonavir and trazodone were coadministered.
It is likely that ketoconazole, indinavir, and other CYP3A4 inhibitors such as itraconazole may lead to substantial increases in trazodone plasma concentrations with the potential for adverse effects.
If trazodone is used with a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, the risk of cardiac arrhythmia may be increased [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4 )] and a lower dose of trazodone should be considered.
Cytochrome P450 Inducers (e.g., Carbamazepine) Carbamazepine induces CYP3A4.
Following coadministration of carbamazepine 400 mg per day with trazodone 100 mg to 300 mg daily, carbamazepine reduced plasma concentrations of trazodone and m-chlorophenlypiperazine (an active metabolite) by 76% and 60% respectively, compared to pre-carbamazepine values.
Patients should be closely monitored to see if there is a need for an increased dose of trazodone when taking both drugs.
Digoxin and Phenytoin Increased serum digoxin or phenytoin levels have been reported in patients receiving trazodone concurrently with either of these drugs.
Monitor serum levels and adjust dosages as needed.
Serotonergic Drugs Based on the mechanism of action of trazodone and the potential for serotonin syndrome, caution is advised when trazodone is coadministered with other drugs that may affect the neurotransmitter systems [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 ) ].
NSAIDs, Aspirin, or Other Drugs Affecting Coagulation or Bleeding Due to a possible association between serotonin modulating drugs and gastrointestinal bleeding, patients should be monitored for and cautioned about the potential risk of bleeding associated with the concomitant use of trazodone and NSAIDs, aspirin, or other drugs that affect coagulation or bleeding [s ee Warnings and Precautions ( 5.7 ) ].
Warfarin There have been reports of altered (either increased or decreased) prothrombin times in taking both warfarin and trazodone.
• CNS Depressants: Trazodone may enhance effects of alcohol, barbiturates, or other CNS depressants ( 7 ).
• CYP3A4 Inhibitors: May necessitate lower dose of trazodone hydrochloride tablets ( 7 ).
• CYP3A4 Inducers (e.g., Carbamazepine): May necessitate higher dose of trazodone hydrochloride tablets ( 7 ).
• Digoxin or Phenytoin: Monitor for increased serum levels ( 7 ).
• Warfarin: Monitor for increased or decreased prothrombin time ( 7 ).
10 10.1 Human Experience Death from overdose has occurred in patients ingesting trazodone and other CNS depressant drugs concurrently (alcohol; alcohol and chloral hydrate and diazepam; amobarbital; chlordiazepoxide; or meprobamate).
The most severe reactions reported to have occurred with overdose of trazodone alone have been priapism, respiratory arrest, seizures, and ECG changes, including QT prolongation.
The reactions reported most frequently have been drowsiness and vomiting.
Overdosage may cause an increase in incidence or severity of any of the reported adverse reactions.
10.2 Management of Overdose There is no specific antidote for trazodone hydrochloride overdose.
Treatment should consist of those general measures employed in the management of overdosage with any drug effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder.
Ensure an adequate airway, oxygenation and ventilation.
Monitor cardiac rhythm and vital signs.
General supportive and symptomatic measures are also recommended.
Induction of emesis is not recommended.
Gastric lavage with a large bore orogastric tube with appropriate airway protection, if needed, may be indicated if performed soon after ingestion, or in symptomatic patients.
Activated charcoal should be administered.
Forced diuresis may be useful in facilitating elimination of the drug.
In managing overdosage, consider the possibility of multiple drug involvement.
The physician should consider contacting a poison control center for additional information on the treatment of any overdose.
11 Trazodone hydrochloride, USP is an antidepressant chemically unrelated to tricyclic, tetracyclic, or other known antidepressant agents.
Trazodone hydrochloride, USP is a triazolopyridine derivative designated as 2-[3-[4-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl]propyl]-1,2,4-triazolo[4, 3-a]pyridin-3(2 H )-one hydrochloride.
It is a white, odorless crystalline powder which is freely soluble in water.
The structural formula is represented as follows: C19H22ClN5O · HCl M.
408.32 C19H22ClN5O · HCl M.
408.32 Each tablet, for oral administration, contains 50 mg, 100 mg or 150 mg of trazodone hydrochloride, USP.
In addition, each tablet contains colloidal silicon dioxide, lactose anhydrous, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose and sodium starch glycolate.
14 The efficacy and safety of trazodone hydrochloride was established from both inpatient and outpatient trials of the trazodone immediate release formulation in the treatment of major depressive disorder.
16 /STORAGE AND HANDLING Trazodone Hydrochloride Tablets USP are available as follows: 50 mg: White, round, compressed tablet, debossed “PLIVA 433” on one side and scored on the other side.
Available in Cards of 28 tablets, NDC 55154-5764-3 Cards of 30 tablets, NDC 55154-5764-9 100 mg: White, round, compressed tablet, debossed “PLIVA 434” on one side and scored on the other side.
Available in Cards of 28 tablets, NDC 55154-5765-3 Cards of 30 tablets, NDC 55154-5765-9 150 mg: White, trapezoid, flat-face, beveled edge tablet, scored and debossed as “PLIVA” bisect “441” on one side and tri-scored and debossed as “50” in each section on the other side.
Available in Overbagged with 10 tablets per bag, NDC 55154-5762-0 Cartons of 100 tablets, NDC 55154-5762-4 Directions for using the correct score when breaking the tablet please refer to the following: – For 50 mg, break the score on either the left or right side of the tablet (one-third of a tablet).
– For 75 mg, break the score down the middle of the tablet (one-half of a tablet).
– For 100 mg, break the score on either the left or right side of the tablet (two-thirds of a tablet).
– For 150 mg, use the entire tablet.
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP, with a child-resistant closure (as required).
KEEP THIS AND ALL MEDICATIONS OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.
Image 1 Image 2 Image 3 Image 4
RECENT MAJOR CHANGES
Warnings and Precautions ( 5.12 ) 06/2014
8.5 Geriatric Use Reported clinical literature and experience with trazodone has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients.
However, as experience in the elderly with trazodone hydrochloride is limited, it should be used with caution in geriatric patients.
Antidepressants have been associated with cases of clinically significant hyponatremia in elderly patients who may be at greater risk for this adverse reaction [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.10 ) ].
DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
3 Trazodone hydrochloride tablets are available in the following strengths: 50 mg- White, round, compressed tablet, debossed “PLIVA 433” on one side and scored on the other side.
100 mg- White, round, compressed tablet, debossed “PLIVA 434” on one side and scored on the other side.
150 mg- White, trapezoid, flat-face, beveled edge tablet, scored and debossed as “PLIVA” bisect “441” on one side and tri-scored and debossed as “50” in each section on the other side.
Bisectable tablets of 50 mg, 100 mg and 150 mg ( 3 ).
MECHANISM OF ACTION
12.1 Mechanism of Action The mechanism of trazodone’s antidepressant action is not fully understood, but is thought to be related to its potentiation of serotonergic activity in the CNS.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
1 Trazodone Hydrochloride Tablets USP are indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults.
The efficacy of Trazodone Hydrochloride Tablets USP has been established in trials with the immediate release formulation of trazodone [see Clinical Studies ( 14 )].
Trazodone Hydrochloride Tablets USP are indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder ( 1 ).
• Efficacy was established in trials of trazodone immediate release formulation in patients with major depressive disorder ( 14 ).
8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in the pediatric population have not been established [ see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 ) ].
Trazodone hydrochloride should not be used in children or adolescents.
8.1 Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects Pregnancy Category C Trazodone hydrochloride has been shown to cause increased fetal resorption and other adverse effects on the fetus in two studies using the rat when given at dose levels approximately 30 to 50 times the proposed maximum human dose.
There was also an increase in congenital anomalies in one of three rabbit studies at approximately 15 to 50 times the maximum human dose.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women.
Trazodone hydrochloride should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
8.3 Nursing Mothers Trazodone and/or its metabolites have been found in the milk of lactating rats, suggesting that the drug may be secreted in human milk.
Caution should be exercised when trazodone is administered to a nursing woman.
WARNING: SUICIDALITY AND ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS Antidepressants increased the risk compared to placebo of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults in short-term studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders.
Anyone considering the use of trazodone hydrochloride tablets or any other antidepressant in a child, adolescent, or young adult must balance this risk with the clinical need.
Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction in risk with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older.
Depression and certain other psychiatric disorders are themselves associated with increases in the risk of suicide.
Patients of all ages who are started on antidepressant therapy should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, or unusual changes in behavior.
Families and caregivers should be advised of the need for close observation and communication with the prescriber.
Trazodone hydrochloride tablets are not approved for use in pediatric patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Patient Counseling Information (17.1)] .
WARNING: SUICIDALITY AND ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning.
WARNING AND CAUTIONS
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS • Clinical Worsening/Suicide Risk: Monitor for clinical worsening and suicidal thinking and behavior ( 5.1 ).
• Serotonin Syndrome or Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome-Like Reactions: Have been reported with antidepressants.
Discontinue trazodone hydrochloride tablets and initiate supportive treatment ( 5.2 , 7 ).
• Activation of Mania/Hypomania: Screen for bipolar disorder and monitor for mania/hypomania ( 5.3 ).
• QT Prolongation: Increases the QT interval.
Avoid use with drugs that also increase the QT interval and in patients with risk factors for prolonged QT interval ( 5.4 ).
• Use in Patients With Heart Disease: Use with caution in patients with cardiac disease ( 5.5 ).
• Orthostatic Hypotension and Syncope: Have occurred.
Warn patients of risk and symptoms of hypotension ( 5.6 ).
• Abnormal Bleeding: May increase the risk of bleeding.
Use with NSAIDs, aspirin, or other drugs that affect coagulation may compound this risk ( 5.7 , 7 ).
• Interaction With MAOIs: Do not use concomitantly or within 14 days of monoamine oxidase inhibitors ( 5.8 , 7 ).
• Priapism: Has occurred.
Warn male patients of this risk and how/when to seek medical attention ( 5.9 ).
• Hyponatremia: Can occur in association with SIADH ( 5.10 ).
• Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment: Has potential to impair judgment, thinking, and motor skills.
Advise patients to use caution when operating machinery ( 5.11 ).
• Angle-Closure Glaucoma: Angle closure glaucoma has occurred in patients with untreated anatomically narrow angles treated with antidepressants.
( 5.12 ) • Discontinuation Symptoms: May occur with abrupt discontinuation and include anxiety and sleep disturbance.
Upon discontinuation, taper trazodone hydrochloride tablets and monitor for symptoms ( 5.13 ).
5.1 Clinical Worsening and Suicide Risk Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), both adult and pediatric, may experience worsening of their depression and/or the emergence of suicidal ideation and behavior (suicidality) or unusual changes in behavior, whether or not they are taking antidepressant medications, and this risk may persist until significant remission occurs.
Suicide is a known risk of depression and certain other psychiatric disorders and these disorders themselves are the strongest predictors of suicide.
There has been a long standing concern, however, that antidepressants may have a role in inducing worsening of depression and the emergence of suicidality in certain patients during the early phases of treatment.
Pooled analyses of short-term placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant drugs (SSRIs and others) showed that these drugs increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults (ages 18 to 24) with MDD and other psychiatric disorders.
Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older.
The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in children and adolescents with MDD, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 24 short-term trials of 9 antidepressant drugs in over 4,400 patients.
The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in adults with MDD or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 295 short-term trials (median duration of 2 months) of 11 antidepressant drugs in over 77,000 patients.
There was considerable variation in risk of suicidality among drugs, but a tendency toward an increase in the younger patients for almost all drugs studied.
There were differences in absolute risk of suicidality across the different indications, with the highest incidence in MDD.
The risk differences (drug vs.
placebo), however, were relatively stable within age strata and across indications.
These risk differences (drug-placebo difference in the number of cases of suicidality per 1,000 patients treated) are provided in Table 1 .
Table 1 Age Range Drug-Placebo Difference in Number of Cases of Suicidality per 1,000 Patients Treated Increases Compared to Placebo < 18 14 additional cases 18 to 24 5 additional cases Decreases Compared to Placebo 25 to 64 1 fewer case ≥ 65 6 fewer cases No suicides occurred in any of the pediatric trials.
There were suicides in the adult trials, but the number was not sufficient to reach any conclusion about drug effect on suicide.
It is unknown whether the suicidality risk extends to longer-term use, i.e., beyond several months.
However, there is substantial evidence from placebo-controlled maintenance trials in adults with depression that the use of antidepressants can delay the recurrence of depression.
All patients being treated with antidepressants for any indication should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, and unusual changes in behavior, especially during the initial few months of a course of drug therapy, or at times of dose changes, either increases or decreases .
The following symptoms, anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, and mania, have been reported in adult and pediatric patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder as well as for other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric.
Although a causal link between the emergence of such symptoms and either the worsening of depression and/or the emergence of suicidal impulses has not been established, there is concern that such symptoms may represent precursors to emerging suicidality.
Consideration should be given to changing the therapeutic regimen, including possibly discontinuing the medication, in patients whose depression is persistently worse, or who are experiencing emergent suicidality or symptoms that might be precursors to worsening depression or suicidality, especially if these symptoms are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient’s presenting symptoms.
Families and caregivers of patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder or other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric, should be alerted about the need to monitor patients for the emergence of agitation, irritability, unusual changes in behavior, and the other symptoms described above, as well as the emergence of suicidality, and to report such symptoms immediately to healthcare providers .
Such monitoring should include daily observation by families and caregivers .
Prescriptions for trazodone should be written for the smallest quantity of tablets consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose.
5.2 Serotonin Syndrome or Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)-Like Reactions The development of a potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome or neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS)-like reactions have been reported with antidepressants alone and may occur with trazodone treatment, but particularly with concomitant use of other serotoninergic drugs (including SSRIs, SNRIs and triptans) and with drugs that impair metabolism of serotonin (including monoamine oxidase inhibitors [MAOIs]), or with antipsychotics or other dopamine antagonists.
Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, and hyperthermia), neuromuscular aberrations (e.g., hyperreflexia, incoordination) and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea).
Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form, can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome, which includes hyperthermia, muscle rigidity, autonomic instability with possible rapid fluctuation of vital signs, and mental status changes.
Treatment with trazodone hydrochloride tablets and any concomitant serotonergic or antidopaminergic agents, including antipsychotics, should be discontinued immediately if the above reactions occur and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Trazodone hydrochloride tablets should not be used within 14 days of an MAOI [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.8 ) and Drug Interactions ( 7 )].
If concomitant treatment with trazodone hydrochloride tablets and an SSRI, SNRI or a 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonist (triptan) is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases.
The concomitant use of trazodone hydrochloride tablets with serotonin precursors (such as tryptophan) is not recommended.
5.3 Screening Patients for Bipolar Disorder and Monitoring for Mania/Hypomania A major depressive episode may be the initial presentation of bipolar disorder.
It is generally believed (though not established in controlled trials) that treating such an episode with an antidepressant alone may increase the likelihood of precipitation of a mixed/manic episode in patients at risk for bipolar disorder.
Whether any of the symptoms described for clinical worsening and suicide risk represent such a conversion is unknown.
However, prior to initiating treatment with an antidepressant, patients with depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression.
It should be noted that trazodone hydrochloride tablets are not approved for use in treating bipolar depression.
5.4 QT Prolongation and Risk of Sudden Death Trazodone is known to prolong the QT/QT c interval.
Some drugs that prolong the QT/QT c interval can cause torsade de pointes with sudden, unexplained death.
The relationship of QT prolongation is clearest for larger increases (20 msec and greater), but it is possible that smaller QT/QT c prolongations may also increase risk, especially in susceptible individuals, such as those with hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, or a genetic predisposition to prolonged QT/QT c .
Although torsade de pointes has not been observed with the use of trazodone hydrochloride tablets at recommended doses in premarketing trials, experience is too limited to rule out an increased risk.
However, there have been postmarketing reports of torsade de pointes with the immediate-release form of trazodone (in the presence of multiple confounding factors), even at doses of 100 mg per day or less.
5.5 Use in Patients With Heart Disease Trazodone hydrochloride is not recommended for use during the initial recovery phase of myocardial infarction.
Caution should be used when administering trazodone hydrochloride tablets to patients with cardiac disease and such patients should be closely monitored, since antidepressant drugs (including trazodone hydrochloride) may cause cardiac arrhythmias.
QT prolongation has been reported with trazodone therapy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] .
Clinical studies in patients with preexisting cardiac disease indicate that trazodone hydrochloride may be arrhythmogenic in some patients in that population.
Arrhythmias identified include isolated PVCs, ventricular couplets, tachycardia with syncope, and torsade de pointes.
Postmarketing events have been reported at doses of 100 mg or less with the immediate-release form of trazodone.
Concomitant administration of drugs that prolong the QT interval or that are inhibitors of CYP3A4 may increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmia.
5.6 Orthostatic Hypotension and Syncope Hypotension, including orthostatic hypotension and syncope has been reported in patients receiving trazodone hydrochloride.
Concomitant use with an antihypertensive may require a reduction in the dose of the antihypertensive drug.
5.7 Abnormal Bleeding Postmarketing data have shown an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding.
While no association between trazodone and bleeding events, in particular GI bleeding, was shown, patients should be cautioned about potential risk of bleeding associated with the concomitant use of trazodone and NSAIDs, aspirin, or other drugs that affect coagulation or bleeding.
Other bleeding events related to SSRIs and SNRIs have ranged from ecchymosis, hematoma, epistaxis, and petechiae to life-threatening hemorrhages.
5.8 Interaction With MAOIs In patients receiving serotonergic drugs in combination with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), there have been reports of serious, sometimes fatal reactions including hyperthermia, rigidity, myoclonus, autonomic instability with rapid fluctuation in vital signs, and mental status changes that include extreme agitation progressing to delirium and coma.
These reactions have also been reported in patients who have recently discontinued antidepressant treatment and have been started on an MAOI.
Some cases presented with features resembling neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Furthermore, limited animal data on the effects of combined use of serotonergic antidepressants and MAOIs suggest that these drugs may act synergistically to elevate blood pressure and evoke behavioral excitation.
Therefore, it is recommended that trazodone hydrochloride tablets should not be used in combination with an MAOI or within 14 days of discontinuing treatment with an MAOI.
Similarly, at least 14 days should be allowed after stopping trazodone hydrochloride tablets before starting an MAOI.
5.9 Priapism Rare cases of priapism (painful erections greater than 6 hours in duration) were reported in men receiving trazodone.
Priapism, if not treated promptly, can result in irreversible damage to the erectile tissue.
Men who have an erection lasting greater than 6 hours, whether painful or not, should immediately discontinue the drug and seek emergency medical attention [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.2 ) and Overdosage ( 10 )].
Trazodone should be used with caution in men who have conditions that might predispose them to priapism (e.g., sickle cell anemia, multiple myeloma, or leukemia), or in men with anatomical deformation of the penis (e.g., angulation, cavernosal fibrosis, or Peyronie’s disease).
5.10 Hyponatremia Hyponatremia may occur as a result of treatment with antidepressants.
In many cases, this hyponatremia appears to be the result of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH).
Cases with serum sodium lower than 110 mmol/L have been reported.
Elderly patients may be at greater risk of developing hyponatremia with antidepressants.
Also, patients taking diuretics or who are otherwise volume-depleted can be at greater risk.
Discontinuation of trazodone hydrochloride tablets should be considered in patients with symptomatic hyponatremia and appropriate medical intervention should be instituted.
Signs and symptoms of hyponatremia include headache, difficulty concentrating, memory impairment, confusion, weakness, and unsteadiness, which can lead to falls.
Signs and symptoms associated with more severe and/or acute cases have included hallucination, syncope, seizure, coma, respiratory arrest, and death.
5.11 Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment Trazodone hydrochloride tablets may cause somnolence or sedation and may impair the mental and/or physical ability required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks.
Patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that the drug treatment does not affect them adversely 5.12 Angle-Closure Glaucoma Angle-Closure Glaucoma: The pupillary dilation that occurs following use of many antidepressant drugs including trazodone hydrochloride tablets may trigger an angle closure attack in a patient with anatomically narrow angles who does not have a patent iridectomy 5.13 Discontinuation Symptoms Withdrawal symptoms including anxiety, agitation and sleep disturbances, have been reported with trazodone.
Clinical experience suggests that the dose should be gradually reduced before complete discontinuation of the treatment.
INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS
17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION See FDA-approved Medication Guide 17.1 Information for Patients Prescribers or other health professionals should inform patients, their families, and their caregivers about the benefits and risks associated with treatment with trazodone hydrochloride and should counsel them in its appropriate use.
Patients should be warned that: • There is a potential for increased risk of suicidal thoughts especially in children, teenagers and young adults.
• The following symptoms should be reported to the physician: anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia, hypomania and mania.
• They should inform their physician if they have a history of bipolar disorder, cardiac disease or myocardial infarction.
• Serotonin syndrome could occur and symptoms may include changes in mental status (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, and hyperthermia), neuromuscular aberrations (e.g., hyperreflexia, incoordination) and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea).
• Trazodone hydrochloride has been associated with the occurrence of priapism.
• There is a potential for hypotension, including orthostatic hypotension and syncope.
• There is a potential risk of bleeding (including life-threatening hemorrhages) and bleeding related events (including ecchymosis, hematoma, epistaxis, and petechiae) with the concomitant use of trazodone hydrochloride and NSAIDs, aspirin, or other drugs that affect coagulation or bleeding.
• Withdrawal symptoms including anxiety, agitation and sleep disturbances, have been reported with trazodone.
Clinical experience suggests that the dose should be gradually reduced.
• Patients should be advised that taking trazodone hydrochloride tablets can cause mild pupillary dilation, which in susceptible individuals, can lead to an episode of angle-closure glaucoma.
Pre-existing glaucoma is almost always open-angle glaucoma because angle closure glaucoma, when diagnosed, can be treated definitively with iridectomy.
Open-angle glaucoma is not a risk factor for angle-closure glaucoma.
Patients may wish to be examined to determine whether they are susceptible to angle closure, and have a prophylactic procedure (e.g., iridectomy), if they are susceptible.
[ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.12 ) ] Patients should be counseled that: • Trazodone may cause somnolence or sedation and may impair the mental and/or physical ability required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks.
Patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles until they are reasonably certain that the drug treatment does not affect them.
• Trazodone may enhance the response to alcohol, barbiturates, and other CNS depressants.
• Women who intend to become pregnant or who are breastfeeding should discuss with a physician whether they should continue to use trazodone, since use in pregnant and nursing women is not recommended.
Important Administration Instructions: • Trazodone hydrochloride tablets should be swallowed whole or broken in half along the score line.
• Trazodone hydrochloride tablets should be taken shortly after a meal or light snack.
Manufactured In Croatia By: PLIVA HRVATSKA d.o.o.
Zagreb, Croatia Manufactured For: TEVA PHARMACEUTICALS USA Sellersville, PA 18960 Rev.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
2 The dosage should be initiated at a low-dose and increased gradually, noting the clinical response and any evidence of intolerance.
Occurrence of drowsiness may require the administration of a major portion of the daily dose at bedtime or a reduction of dosage.
Trazodone hydrochloride tablets should be taken shortly after a meal or light snack.
Dose Selection An initial dose of 150 mg/day in divided doses is suggested.
The dose may be increased by 50 mg/day every 3 to 4 days.
The maximum dose for outpatients usually should not exceed 400 mg/day in divided doses.
Inpatients (i.e., more severely depressed patients) may be given up to but not in excess of 600 mg/day in divided doses • Once an adequate response has been achieved, dosage may be gradually reduced, with subsequent adjustment depending on therapeutic response.
• Patients should be monitored for withdrawal symptoms when discontinuing treatment with trazodone hydrochloride tablets.
The dose should be gradually reduced whenever possible [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.13 )] .
Maintenance Treatment The efficacy of trazodone hydrochloride tablets for the maintenance treatment of MDD has not been evaluated.
While there is no body of evidence available to answer the question of how long a patient treated with trazodone hydrochloride tablets should continue the drug, it is generally recommended that treatment be continued for several months after an initial response.
Patients should be maintained on the lowest effective dose and be periodically reassessed to determine the continued need for maintenance treatment.
Important Administration Instructions Trazodone hydrochloride tablets are scored to provide flexibility in dosing.
Trazodone hydrochloride tablets can be swallowed whole or administered as a half tablet by breaking the tablet along the score line.
• Starting dose: 150 mg in divided doses daily.
May be increased by 50 mg per day every three to four days.
Maximum dose: 400 mg per day in divided doses ( 2 ).
• Trazodone hydrochloride tablets should be taken shortly after a meal or light snack ( 2 ).
• Tablets should be swallowed whole or broken in half along the score line, and should not be chewed or crushed ( 2 ).
• When discontinued, gradual dose reduction is recommended ( 2 ).